Kidney Transplant

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Highlights

  • An improved quality of life
  • Freedom from dialysis 
  • Increased feeling of well-being 
  • Fewer restrictions on diet and activities 
  • Increased energy level 
  • A greater chance for a longer life

  • 10

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  • 30

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  • 40

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    Overview

    Details Of Kidney Transplant

    The kidneys are reddish-brown bean-shaped organs found in invertebrates. They are situated on the right and left in the retroperitoneal space. The size of kidneys in an adult human is around 12 cm in length. Paired renal arteries supply blood to the kidneys, which passes to the paired renal veins. Each kidney is attached to the ureter that carries excreted urine to the bladder. The Kidneys have a very crucial role in maintaining a healthy body. The prime function of the kidneys is to filter all the waste matter in the blood and flush them out from the body through urine. Any kind of damage to the kidney will disrupt its function to filter, wherein the waste remains in the body and may lead to some serious issues. 
     
    When kidneys are unable to filter well, increased levels of fluids and waste get accumulates in the body. Such levels of waste accumulation increase the patient’s blood pressure and may lead to kidney failure. When the kidneys fail and lose almost 90% of their ability to function well, it may lead to the end stage of renal disease. 
     
    Common causes of end-stage kidney disease include as below:

    • Severe uncontrolled high blood pressure
    • Diabetes
    • Severe glomerulonephritis – which means eventual scarring and inflammation of the small filters in the kidneys known as glomeruli
    • Polycystic kidney disease
     
    Patients suffering from the end-stage renal disease may need to remove the waste from their bloodstream through dialysis or sometimes may need to undergo a kidney transplant. Patients, whose kidneys have failed, generally have to undergo dialysis. Dialysis is a treatment that helps to filter the waste mechanically which is accumulated in the bloodstream when the kidneys stop working. The process of dialysis is time-consuming and quite tedious. 
     
    A kidney transplant provides freedom from being dependent on the dialysis machine and its rigorous schedule. This will also help the patient to live an active life. Transplantation of a kidney is a surgical procedure carried out to replace the patient’s damaged kidney with a healthy kidney either from a deceased donor or from a living person. We have some Best Doctors for a Kidney transplants in India. The doctors are well experienced in handling transplant cases.
    A kidney transplant provides better quality of life, a lower risk of death, and lesser dietary restrictions as compared to a lifetime of dialysis. 
     
    However, kidney transplants may not be suitable for everyone. Especially, for those patients who have active infections and those who are severely overweight. MediFlam offers some of the best hospitals for Kidney Transplants in India. 

    Type of Kidney Transplant

    Kidney transplants are of three types

    • Deceased-donor kidney transplant
    • Living-donor kidney transplant
    • Preemptive kidney transplant


    Deceased-donor kidney transplant

    Deceased donors are also named cadaver donors. A deceased donor kidney transplant is carried out when the kidney is removed from a person who has just died and the family has given consent for the same or from a donor card. The healthy kidney from such a donor is placed in the recipient whose both kidneys have failed and do not function well and need a kidney transplant. The donated kidney is stored in ice or connected to a machine that provides nutrients and oxygen till the time the kidney is transplanted in the recipient person. Expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys are transplantable deceased donor kidneys 

     Living-donor kidney transplant

    A living-donor kidney transplant is carried out when the kidney is removed from a living donor and placed in a recipient whose kidney does not function well. One donated kidney can replace two failed kidneys, which makes the living-donor kidney transplant donor an alternative to the cadaver kidney transplant donor. Kidney Transplant donor requirements are:

    • Above 18 years 
    • Willing to commit to evaluation, surgery, and the burden of recovery
    • Have a compatible blood type
    • In good health and stress-free condition
    • Have normal kidney function


    Preemptive kidney transplant

    Preemptive kidney transplant is carried out for those patients who decide to undergo a kidney transplant even before the function of the kidneys deteriorate to an extent where dialysis may be needed. Preemptive renal transplant is carried out before the initiation of chronic maintenance dialysis. Such a transplant is done to replace the normal function of filtering the kidneys. 

    Most kidney transplants are carried out on patients who are already on dialysis since their kidneys are not able to properly clean the impurities in the blood.

    Science

    Who might need a kidney transplant?

    Patients, whose loss of kidney function is less than 15% of the normal levels, indicate kidney failure. If this situation is prolonged it leads to ESRD – or end-stage renal disease or ESKD – end-stage Kidney disease. The toxic waste product that is accumulated may lead to many complications in the body. The reason why people need kidney transplants is to restore normal kidney functions and for that, the doctor may recommend a few treatment options like peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and kidney transplant.

     Dialysis is done at regular intervals to remove the waste from the body. This makes the patient dependent on dialysis. When the number of dialysis needs per week increases it impacts the quality of life of the patient. A Kidney transplant is suitable for patients of all age groups ranging from children to seniors. The patient needs to be healthy to undergo the major surgery and after the surgery, he or she should be able to strictly follow medications for an entire life to be a good candidate for a transplant. The kidney transplant success rate in India depends on the patient’s condition at the time of admission and other comorbidities may or may be present at the time of evaluation.

     Some of the conditions which generally cause kidney damage results in ESRD are as below: 

    • High blood pressure
    • Diabetes mellitus (type 2)
    • Glomerulonephritis (inflammation)
    • Polycystic Kidney Disease
    • An uncommon disorder that can cause kidney failure named Hemolytic uremic syndrome
    • Repeated urinary infections
    • Diseases like Lupus (of the immune system) 
    • Difficulty in the urinary tract
    • defects of the kidneys during birth

     

    Who might not go for a renal transplant?

    Some of the conditions may not be suitable for a patient to opt for a kidney transplant as below:

    • Untreatable heart disease
    • Active substance abuse
    • Metastatic cancer’s previous history or if a person is already into chemotherapy sessions
    • Systemic ongoing infections 
    • The physiological condition that is not manageable
    • An ongoing condition with neurological impairment 

    The health risks associated with the surgery of a kidney transplant are the rejection of the donor organ, certain side effects of medications like immunosuppressants, or anti-rejection that are needed to prevent the body from rejecting the donated kidney. 

    To decide whether the patient should opt for a kidney transplant is his or her own choice and hence he or she should carefully think and consider all the benefits and risks associated with it. The patient should discuss their decision with their family, friends, and the healthcare team. MediFlam helps you to connect the patient to them for their treatment. MediFlam has onboarded some of the best hospitals known for quality doctors offering world-class services, practicing with utmost professionalism. There are Top Hospitals for Kidney Transplant in India. We act as an effective catalyst between hospitals and patients. 

    Complications of the procedure

    Complications of kidney transplant are as below: 

    • Infection
    • Bleeding and blood clots
    • Rejection or failure of the donated kidney
    • Blockage or leakage of the ureter 
    • Heart Attack, death, and stroke
    • Cancer or infection that is passed on with the donated kidney

     

    Anti-rejection medication side effects

    Post kidney transplant, the patient will have to take medications that help prevent from rejecting the donor’s kidney. These medications may cause numerous side effects such as: 

    • Diabetes
    • Excessive hair loss or hair growth
    • Osteonecrosis or bone damage and osteoporosis or bone thinning
    • Higher cholesterol
    • High blood pressure
    • Gain weight
    • Infections
    • Edema or puffiness
    • Skin cancer and lymphoma 
    • Acne

    Before the procedure

    Finding a match

    A kidney donor can be a living donor or a deceased one. It may be or may not be related to the patient but the most important thing to know is whether the donor’s kidney will match with the patient or not. For that, there are kidney donor requirements. For international patients, kidney donor in India is not possible to arrange. Patients have to arrange from their relatives or friends who are willing to donate their kidneys. 

    Tests carried out to verify for the match:

    Blood typing 

    Blood typing for a kidney transplant is very much necessary. The donor’s blood type needs to match or get compatible with the patient. Mostly, the kidney of a donor is preferred when the Blood type is incompatible or mismatch transplants may be possible but it would need additional medical treatment both before and after the transplant surgery. This is required to reduce the risk due to organ rejection. These are familiar as ABO-incompatible kidney (renal) transplants. 

     Tissue typing  

    Once the blood type is compatible, tissue typing for a kidney transplant, known as HLA types in human or human leukocyte antigens typing is carried out. This test makes a comparison of genetic markers which increases the chances of kidney transplants for a longer time. A good match indicates that the body won’t reject the organ in most cases

     Cross-match  

     Crossmatch kidney transplant is a very important part of the workup done for the living donor before the transplant. A Cross-match blood test is done to test whether the recipient and donor's blood are fully compatible. It is to mix a sample of recipient blood with the donor’s blood. This test evaluates whether the antibodies present in the blood react with specific antigens of the donor’s blood. A negative cross-match indicates they are compatible and the body may not reject the donor’s kidney. A positive crossmatch may also be possible but will need additional medical treatment after and before the surgery to lower the risk of the antibodies reacting with the donor organ. 

     The healthcare providers may also consider a few more factors to find the most suitable donor kidney. Add on factors such as kidney size, age, and exposure to any infection. 

     Living kidney donation

    To find a living kidney donor who is willing to help is an alternative rather than waiting for a deceased donor who is available and compatible. Many a time, patient relatives or members of a family are the best options for donating a compatible living kidney. Successful living-donor transplants are quite common with kidneys donated by unrelated people, such as colleagues, friends, or any other society members. 

     Another type of living kidney donation is a paired donation. In such a case, a kidney is donated to a person who has a better match. Then the patient receives a compatible kidney from the recipient’s donor. In some of the cases, more than two pairs of donors and recipients are linked with a non-directed living kidney donor to create a chain of donation with many recipients who will be benefitted from the non-directed donor’s gift. 

     If a compatible living donor is not available, the patient’s name is mentioned in the waiting list for a deceased-donor kidney. The waiting list keeps on increasing. The waiting time for a deceased-donor kidney is generally a few years. 

     During the procedure

    Kidney transplant procedure steps are the ones that are carried out using general anesthesia, so the patient is not awake during the process. A kidney transplant surgeon and his/her surgical team monitor your blood pressure, heart rate, and levels of blood oxygen throughout the process. 

     During the surgery: 

    During kidney transplant surgery, an incision or a cut is created at one side of the lower part of the abdomen and the new kidney is placed in the patient’s body. The kidneys are let in place unless the patient’s kidneys cause any issues like kidney stones, high blood pressure, and any kind of pain or infection. 

    New kidney’s blood vessels are linked to the blood vessels of the base of the abdomen. 

    The new kidneys ureter is attached to the patient's bladder. 

     After the procedure

    After a kidney transplant, one can expect to:

    Spend several days to a week in the hospital 

    The patient is kept under observation to see for any type of complication during a kidney transplant. The new kidney will start making urine, the same way earlier kidneys used to make. This starts right away. In some cases, it may take a few days and the patient may need dialysis temporary basis till the new kidneys start to function properly. After kidney transplant precautions should be taken to avoid unnecessary complications. During the healing process, the patient should expect pain or soreness around the cut or incision site. Most kidney transplant recipients may return to daily work and other regular activities in 08 weeks after the transplant. The patient should not lift weights heavier than 5 kgs, should not exercise apart from walking till the time the wound is healed. Kidney transplant surgery in India is very affordable compared to western countries.

     Have frequent checkups during the recovery period

    Kidney transplant aftercare is very much essential for patients who have undergone the transplant procedure. After the patient is discharged from the hospital, he or she has to closely monitor kidney rejection symptoms for a few weeks to check the function of the new kidney and to ensure that the new kidney is not rejected by the body. Post-transplant, blood tests are suggested to be done in a week and the medications are adjusted depending on the patient’s condition. There are few medications to avoid after a kidney transplant. So treatment at well-known kidney transplant hospitals in India along with the best surgeons is very important for better results and post-transplant guidance. During this time, if the patient is not staying in another town, then he or she will have to make arrangements to stay near the hospital.

     Take medications for the rest of your life 

    There are several medications after the kidney transplant. Drugs such as immunosuppressant or anti-rejection medications help to keep the immune system better from the rejection of a new kidney. After the transplant, additional drugs may be prescribed to reduce the risk of any other complications like infection.

    Once the kidney transplant is successful, the patient won’t need dialysis as the new kidney will filter the blood. Drugs such as immunosuppressant or anti-rejection medications help to keep the immune system better from the rejection of a new kidney. These anti-rejection medications may make the patient’s body more susceptible to infections; hence the doctor may prescribe antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal medications as well. 
     
    Its utmost necessary for the patients to take medications that Doctor prescribes them. The patient’s body may reject the new kidney if the medications are not taken even for a short period. The patient should contact the transplant team immediately if he or she has any kind of side effects that don’t allow him or her to take the medications. 
     
    After the transplant, the patient is advised to do a self-check of skin and also visit the dermatologist to check the skin for any type of skin or other cancer.  

    Hospitals

    Ahmedabad
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    Bhavnagar
    Established in 2019
    80 Beds
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    Established in 1959
    650 Beds
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    Established in 2000
    435 Beds
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    Established in 1997
    266 Beds
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    300 Beds
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    Ahmedabad
    Established in 2010
    350 Beds
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    Established in 2004
    1599 Beds
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    348 Beds
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    Ahmedabad
    Established in 2007
    189 Beds
    Multi speciality
    Established in 1996
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    150 Beds
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    Established in 2008
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    Multi speciality
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    310 Beds
    Multi speciality
    Established in 1999
    110 Beds
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    350 Beds
    Super Speciality
    Established in 0
    350 Beds
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    Established in 2007
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    Multi speciality
    Established in 2008
    180 Beds
    Super Speciality
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    170 Beds
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    Established in 2015
    550 Beds
    Multi speciality
    Established in 2003
    300 Beds
    Multi speciality
    Established in 1996
    162 Beds
    Multi speciality
    Established in 0
    150 Beds
    Multi speciality
    Established in 1983
    560 Beds
    Multi speciality
    Established in 1981
    154 Beds
    Multi speciality
    Established in 2003
    610 Beds
    Multi speciality
    Established in 1988
    530 Beds
    Multi speciality
    Established in 2014
    500 Beds
    Super Speciality
    Established in 2016
    49 Beds
    Multi speciality
    Established in 1996
    900 Beds
    Multi speciality
    Established in 0
    500 Beds
    Multi speciality
    Established in 1991
    0 Beds
    Multi speciality
    Established in 0
    8 Beds
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    Established in 1995
    40 Beds
    Multi speciality
    Established in 2009
    225 Beds
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    Established in 2010
    262 Beds
    Multi speciality
    Established in 1970
    364 Beds
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    Established in 2005
    800 Beds
    Super Speciality
    Established in 2000
    200 Beds
    Multi speciality

    FAQ

    When Is Kidney Transplant The Last Option In Any Kidney Disease?
    Kidneys perform the essential function of filtering the body of metabolic wastes and maintaining electrolytes. When kidneys fail to perform their normal function, wastes start accumulating in the body leading to fatal consequences. The total failure of kidneys necessitates renal replacement therapy. This means the patient has to either undergo dialysis or need a kidney replacement. Medically, end-stage chronic kidney disease can lead to kidney transplants.
    How to Identify If I Have Any Kidney Disease? What Test Should I Go Through For That?
    A laboratory test for serum creatinine is the initial test for kidney disease. The kidneys completely clear out creatinine through urine. So if there are higher than normal levels of creatinine, it suggests the presence of kidney disease. The other tests done are Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), serum potassium, complete blood count (CBC), and urine examination for the presence of constituents that are normally not present.
    Will I get a kidney donor in India or do I need to arrange it from here?
    Kidney transplant donor in India is almost impossible to arrange. The donor needs to be arranged by the patient from his/her country of origin. 
    What are the criteria for a Donor to donate his kidney to the transplant patient (recipient)?

      • The age of the donor must be between 18 and 60 years 
      • A donor must be related to the recipient, e.g. Grandparents, parents, siblings, children, or grandchildren. They can also be uncles, aunts or cousins, etc. He/she should be physically fit. There are kidney match requirements to be followed to check whether the donor's kidney is fully compatible or not 
      • The blood group must be similar to the Recipient or “O” group.
      • Must not be suffering from Hepatitis or HIV
      • Must not have Diabetes Mellitus or Hypertension
      • kidney match requirements
      What is the approx kidney transplant cost in India?
      Kidney transplant surgery cost in India starts from around 12000USD. If a patient is suffering from any other medical conditions apart from a kidney transplant, the treatment cost can increase in that case.
      What are the legal formalities in kidney transplant procedures?

      There are many legal formalities for a kidney transplant in India as transplant procedures in a foreign country are covered by laws. 

      What is FRRO and do we need to register there?
      FRRO stands for Foreigner Regional Registration Office. Patients and attendants who are visiting India with their medical visas for their treatments and exceeding their stay for more than 180 days have to register themselves with FRRO within 14 days of their arrival in India. FRRO registers the patient’s arrivals, departures, movements, issues a stay permit, the extension of stay along with required documents that are to be submitted to them. It’s not mandatory for Medical patients to be present in person. 
      How many days are required for the legal formalities to be done in India?
      There are few legal formalities for a kidney transplant in India as organ transplant is a big thing. If all the documents arranged by the patient are in proper order, then the approximate time needed before the surgery, once the patient and the family arrive in India, is around 45 to 60 days. 

      What is the process before coming to India?

      First, the patient needs to send all the medical reports to MediFlam which in turn will be studied and forwarded to the concerned hospitals. Once we send the Doctor's opinion and the Hospital quotations along with our suggestions, the patient can opt for any of the same. The documentation process then begins. MediFlam will forward you an invitation letter prepared by the hospital and on that basis, patients and attendants can apply for their medical visa in/her country's embassy. Once the Medical visa is sanctioned, the patient along with the attendant can fly to India for the treatment with all the required documents.  

      What are the legal processes done for the transplant after arriving India?

      After arriving in India, a patient has to submit all the documents to the Hospital which in turn will be sent to your country’s High Commission in India. Meanwhile, all required pre-work-up tests will be done for donors and recipients. Once all tests come normal and also if No objection letter comes from the High Commission, the Hospital committee sits and forwards the details to the state government for final approval of transplant. All these processes take around 45 to 60 days before transplant surgery.

      Once I arrive in India, how many days it will take before the surgery can be done?

      Usually, 45 to 60 days are needed for the formalities and medical tests to be over before the surgery can be planned. 

      What are the tests conducted for the Recipient before transplant surgery?

      The recipient undergoes the below tests including a blood test for kidney transplant before surgery;

      •  Blood and Urine tests
      • HLA typing and Cross-matching
      • Chest X-ray, Cardiac echo, and Ultrasound 


      The above-said tests are mandatory. Apart from these, if needed other tests can be done depending on the recipient's physical condition during that point in time.

      Does the Donor need to pass through any tests before donating the kidney?

      Yes, the donor has to undergo many tests before donating the kidney. 

      The tests such as: 

      • Blood and Urine tests
      • HLA typing and Cross-matching
      • Chest X-ray, Cardiac Echo, Ultrasound, CT Renal Angio and DTPA scan


      The above-said tests are mandatory. Apart from these, if needed other tests can be done depending on the donor's physical condition during that point in time.

      How many days are required to stay in India post the transplant procedure?

      The follow-ups and the medication schedule for the recipient usually take 30 to 40 days after the surgery. 

      What are the total numbers of days required to stay in India for the whole transplant procedure?

      The usual numbers of days required to stay for kidney transplant surgery in India are approximately 90 to 120 days for the whole transplant procedure.

      What are the complications of a kidney transplant surgery?

      A kidney transplant is a major procedure and involves risk factors like bleeding, clotting of blood, infection, and the rejection of the donor’s kidney. 

      What are the medications that need to be taken after the transplant and how long should I take them?

      Post kidney transplant surgery medication is very important to understand. The main medicines that are required after the transplant are those that help to preserve the graft. This usually includes immune suppressants, medicines that suppress immunity. Other medications are prescribed depending on the condition of the patient. In a kidney transplant procedure, the most important thing is to follow the medication religiously and understand the schedule properly as certain medicines need to be taken for the rest of their life.

      Will I get support from the medical personnel once I reach my country back?

      Yes, MediFlam ensures that the patient gets full support for his/her medical queries once he/she reaches the country of origin. MediFlam’s in-house medical team helps to solve the queries and also arranges to connect with the doctor who performed the transplant.

      What about the accommodation facilities in case I have to stay for 3-4 months? What are the approximate costs?

      MediFlam helps to arrange the logistics including the accommodation and transport facilities. The accommodation charges depend on the preference of the patient and his family as well as taking Hotel, lodge or Apartment. It usually starts at around Rs. 25000 to Rs. 30000 a month. 

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