The knee joint is a hinge joint allowing movement in one axis that is to bend(flexion) and straighten(extension) the knee. The knee joint connects the femur(thigh bone also the longest bone) to the tibia(shin bone). The knee joint consist of the tibiofemoral joint (shin and thigh bone) and the patellofemoral joint that is the patella(knee cap) articulating with the femur. The knee serves as a weight bearing joint, supporting the body upright, making walking more efficient by helping the leg propel forward.

Ligaments are bands of strong tissue that connect bone to bone. The ligaments of the knee joint connect the femur to the tibia holding the in place preventing any excess movements. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), the posterior cruciate ligament(PCL)The medial and lateral collateral ligaments (MCL and PCL).These ligaments join the bone above and below, provide stability and prevent excess forward backward and side to side movement of the femur on a fixed tibia and vice versa. The medial and lateral menisci(articular cartilage)act as shock absorbers between the femur and tibia. Injury to the ligaments can affect the knee stability, meniscal tear may interfere in the knee flexion and extension, aging and degenerative changes also affect the knee.

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NOTE: Above More accurate treatment cost estimates can be provided if medical reports are emailed to us or after the patient is examined by doctors after arrival at hospital in India and medical tests are done after admission.

Frequently asked questions about Knee

How do I know if I have arthritis in my knee?

A knee joint affected by arthritis has following symptoms. The pain develops gradually over time, grinding sensation in the knee, loss of joint spaceand poor range of motion.

What is the best treatment for osteoarthritis in knees?

Mild to moderate pain can be relieved by medications like NSAIDs, icing and hot water fermentation along with physiotherapy to strengthen the musculature surrounding the knee. Moderate to severe pain that hampers daily activities needs attention from the Orthopaedist.

What are the other symptoms associated with Knee pain?

Signs and symptoms that sometimes accompany knee pain include:

  • Swelling 
  • Stiffness
  • Warmth on touch
  • Redness
  • Weakness or instability
  • Crepitus noises
  • Inability to fully straighten the knee
  • Difficulty weight bearing
What causes Knee Pain?

The wear and tear of the cartilage leads to friction between the two bones leading to osteoarthritis(OA). OA is one of the most common reasons for knee pain. Trauma, bursitis(inflammation caused by repeated overuse or injury of the knee)chondromalacia patella(damaged cartilage under the kneecap). gout: arthritis caused by the buildup of uric acid. Ligament injuries also cause knee pain.

What are the risk factors associated with knee problems?

The risk factors are:

  • Excess weight. Increases the stress on knee joints.. It also increases the risk of osteoarthritis by increasing the breakdown of joint cartilage.
  • Lack of muscle flexibility or strength: makes the knee vulnerable to injuries due to the pressure on the bones and ligaments. Strong muscles help stabilize and protect the joints, and muscle flexibility helps achieve full range of motion.
  • Some sports put greater stress on the knees than others
  • Having a previous knee injury makes it more likely that one can injure the knee again.

How can one prevent knee pain?

The following tips may help prevent knee pain:

  • Excess weight adds more strain on the joints, increasing the risk of injuries and osteoarthritis.
  • Strength and conditioning training with an instructor or physiotherapist will not only strengthen the muscles around the knee but also prevent injuries that are likely to occur if the position of exercise being done is incorrect.
  • Functional training that is practice of the technique and movement patterns used in sports or activity will strengthen the muscles and prevent injuries.
  • Balance training helps the muscles around the knees.
  • Low-impact activities like swimming, water aerobics prevent knee pain as well 
What are the most common knee joint injuries?

The most common Knee injuries include fractures around the knee joint, tear of soft tissues like ligaments, meniscus, tendons, dislocation.

What is ACL and how does it tear?

The ACL(anterior cruciate ligament) connects the thighbone to the shinbone, at the knee. This ligament prevent instability in the knee. The ligament gets stretched or tears when the firmly planted foot twists or pivots at the same time on a locked knee(straight knee). It may tear whilst playing high demand sports or an accident.

What happens if ACL injury is not treated?

The articular cartilage is often damaged at the time of the ACL tear. If left untreated, it will wear at the knee, causing an increased rate of osteoarthritis development.

Will an ACL tear heal without surgery?

Very minor tears (sprains) may heal with conservative treatment involving medications and physiotherapy. But full blown ACL tears may not heal without surgery. 

What is total knee replacement surgery?

Knee replacement is a surgical procedure to remove and replace the damaged and diseased part of the knee with a prosthetic knee(artificial metal knee). During a total knee replacement, the lower end of the femur(thigh) bone is removed and replaced with a metal shell. The upper end of the Shin bone (tibia) is also removed and replaced with a plastic piece with a metal stem.

Is total knee replacement surgery painful?

The pain post knee replacement surgery is no more arthritic but due to the incision wound healing and swelling. The pain tends to settle in a few days.

What age is the best for knee replacement surgery?

Usually this surgery is performed for the people in the age group of 60-80. But it may depend on the intensity of knee pain and disability as well.

Which are the best hospitals in India for total knee replacement (TKR)?
  • Fortis Hospital
  • PD Hinduja Hospital
  • Manipal Hospitals
  • Apollo Hospitals
  • Max Hospitals
  • Columbia Asia Hospitals
  • Sakra Hospital
  • Indraprastha Apollo Hospital
  • Shalby Hospitals
  • Artemis Hospitals

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Signs and symptoms that accompany knee pain include:

  • Swelling, stiffness.
  • Warmthon touch.
  • Weakness 
  • Instability.
  • Reduced range of motion
  • Crepitus(click noise in the knee joint).

Knee Conditions

  • Chondromalacia patella (also called patellofemoral syndrome): Translation of the knee cap to lower end of the thigh bone leading to degeneration to the articular cartilage under the patella. This is a common cause of knee pain in young people and may develop due to overuse or injury.
  • Knee osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is the most commonly affects the knees due to aging and wear and tear of cartilage.
  • Knee effusion: Excess synovial fluid gets accumulated inside the knee, usually due to inflammation. Arthritis or injury to the meniscus or ligaments may cause a knee effusion.
  • Meniscal tear(articular cartilage that cushions the knee), damage often occurs due to twisting the knee or sudden excess knee flexion(bending). 
  • ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) tear: The ACL connects the thigh bone to the shin bone. It is one of the major ligaments responsible for the knee’s stability. 
  • PCL (posterior cruciate ligament) tear: PCL is another ligament connecting the thigh bone to the shinbone. 
  • MCL (medial collateral ligament) strain or tear: This ligament is usually affected by an outward force on the knee. The injury may result in pain and possible instability to the inner side of the knee.
  • Patellar tendonitis(jumper’s knee): The tendon connecting the kneecap (patella) to the shin bone may be injured or inflamed. This occurs mostly in athletes who repeatedly jumping.
  • Knee bursitis: inflammation of one or more bursae of the knee. Bursitis often occurs from overuse or injury.
  • Baker’s cyst: It is a fluid filled cyst in the back of the knee. Baker’s cysts usually develop from a persistent effusion as in conditions such as arthritis.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis: is an autoimmune disease that can affect any joint, including the knees.
  • Gout: deposits of uric acid crystals in a joint leads to arthritis. 
  • Pseudogout: It is caused by calcium pyrophosphate crystals depositing in the knee.
  • Septic arthritis: An infection caused by bacteria, a virus, or fungus inside the knee can cause inflammation, pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the knee. 


  • RICE therapy: Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation, pain medication.
  • Physical therapy to strengthen the knee musculature and improve range of motion, Steroid Cortisone injection to help reduce pain and swelling.
  • Knee surgery: Surgery is considered for the following-
  •  Surgery for replacing or repairing of ligament tears, removal of meniscal tears and replacement of knee for those with diseased knees.
  • Arthroscopic surgery: An endoscope (flexible tube with surgical tools on its end) is inserted into the knee joint. This surgery has a short hospital stay and allows one to get to daily life fast.
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