• Basic information of the Ophthalmologist

One of the five senses, the vision, is made possible by the complex structure of our body known as the eye. It is made up of different structures like cornea, lens, retina, etc. that serve different purposes ultimately making vision possible. Problem in any of these structures can lead to various problems in vision or can lead to pain. An ophthalmologist is a specialist who specializes in diagnosing and treating the diseases of the eye. The most common problems that occur are congenital that is present from birth, infections and problems due to advanced age. Cataract is a condition where the lens through which the light passes becomes opaque. This usually occurs in advanced age and is not a medical emergency. But cataract in a child is a medical emergency because it interferes with the development of connections from the eye to the brain. You can try Ophthalmologist online consultation to understand the issue and get guidance for further treatment.

Since there are so many structures involved in the process of perception of vision, so many problems occur that involve different structures. The structural changes can be congenital that is present at birth or can be caused due to advanced age. Some problems also occur due to trauma to the eye. Depending on the structure involved and other disease conditions present, different problems that occur in the eye can be classified as follows:

Problems in the cornea: The transparent part of the front of the eye, which helps in admitting light inside the eye, is called cornea. A healthy cornea, along with the overlying tear film, is necessary to provide a proper surface and to protect the eye from infection and structural damage to the deeper components of the eye. The cornea’s horizontal diameter is normally 9.5-10 mm at birth and 10-12.5 mm in adulthood. Changes in the shape and size can occur and accordingly classified as:

  • Microcornea: cornea that is less than 10 mm in horizontal diameter is called microcornea and can be present with other abnormalities. The treatment involves vision correction with the use of spectacles resulting from flat cornea. Other problems like cataract or glaucoma that may be present together with microcornea may require different treatment.
  • Megalocornea: it is characterized the enlargement of the front of both the eyes with cornea of diameter of 12 mm or greater at birth and 13 mm or greater at 2 years of age. Treatment is usually not necessary except for spectacle correction because the patient cannot see distant objects clearly.
  • Blepharitis: it is characterized by a close relationship between the microorganisms that live in the eye and meibomian gland (it produces meibum, an oily substance that prevents evaporation of the eye’e tear film) dysfunction leading to lid inflammation, corneal and conjunctival changes and symptoms of ocular discomfort.

Usual symptoms of diseases of the cornea:

  • Severe pain in the eye
  • Watering 
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Blurred vision
  • Headaches (occasionally)

Problems in the conjunctiva: Conjunctiva is a tissue that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye. Infections of the conjunctiva by bacteria, viruses and fungi can lead to problem called conjunctivitis. It is one infection that usually every individual contracts once in lifetime. The symptoms include redness, itching, burning and problems in opening the eyes in the morning because of heavy discharge. The ophthalmologist diagnoses and accordingly treats. The platform of MediFlam provides some of the best doctors providing online ophthalmology consultation and guiding patients to get the treatment to cure the issues. The treatment may include antibiotic, antiviral or antifungal eye drops or ointment depending on the causative factor.

Usual symptoms of diseases of the conjunctiva:

  • Increased tear production
  • Redness in the eyes
  • Foreign body feeling in the eyes
  • Itching and irritation or burning
  • Heavy discharge that makes it difficult to open the eyes in the morning

Problems in the lens: The lens is a transparent structure evolved to alter the refraction of light entering the eye. In 2002, the World Health Organization estimated that lens pathology (cataract) was the most common cause of blindness worldwide, affecting over 17 million people across the globe. Cataract surgery is the most common surgical procedure performed in the developed world.

Lens is avascular (lacks blood vessels) and also lacks nerves and connective tissues. It grows throughout life but the rate decreases as the age increases. When the lens starts becoming opaque interfering in vision leading to blurred vision, it is called cataract and accounts for most of the eye surgeries. This is the most common problem that occurs in the lens. 

Cataracts in childhood reduce vision and also interfere with the normal visual development. Cataracts in adults are quite easily manageable when compared to pediatric adults. The problems that come up are those related to the small size of children’s eyes and also because the tissues are softer. Certain modifications and adaptations in surgical technique are required to achieve results similar to those achieved in adults. Book your appointment for online consultation with ophthalmologist and discuss with your doctor about Cataracts related symptoms.

Usual symptoms of the diseases affecting the lens:

The most usual problem that affects the lens of the eye is cataract. Symptoms of cataract are:

  • Difficulty in vision at night or dim light
  • Blurred vision
  • Seeing ‘halos’ around lights
  • Sensitivity to light and glare
  • Double vision
  • Fading or yellowing of colors

Problems in the retina: Retinitis pigmentosa is a genetic disorder and leads to loss of vision. It can cause problems in the vision at night and can also lead to loss of vision in the sides that is peripheral vision. Macula is the centre part of the retina and is critically unique to our visual function. It degenerates at advanced age. The condition is quite common and is called age related macular degeneration. This disease is usually uncommon before 55 years of age and quite common after 75 years of age. The symptoms of this disease include:

  • Blurred or distorted vision that is wavy vision
  • Usually there is no pain and it doesn’t change the appearance of eyes
  • Loss of central vision with appearance darks spots in the centre
  • Things appearing smaller than normal
  • Change in the perception of colour
  • Trouble in recognising faces

The other most common problem that affects the retina is caused due to diabetes and is called diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that affects all the major organs and organ systems of the body. In eyes, it causes problems in the retina leading to condition called retinopathy. The usual symptoms include:

  • Blurred vision
  • Floaters in the vision
  • Loss of central vision
  • Difficulty in color perception
  • Black spots in the area of vision
  • Causes blindness eventually

One of the other problems that occurs is called macular holes. This usually happens in persons over 60 years of age. The chief complaint of this disease is painless development of central visual distortion. This sometimes develop acutely. If loss of vision occurs only in one eye, then it is common that the problem goes undetected. There are different stages of macular hole depending on the severity of the disease. The usual symptoms include:

  • Distorted vision
  • Reading and other routine tasks become difficult with the affected eye

The other common problem that occurs is inflammation of the uvea known as uveitis. Uvea is the pigmented layer of the eye that lies beneath the cornea and sclera (white part of the eye). This condition can develop by the use of contact lenses. The usual symptoms in the affected eye include:

  • Pain
  • Redness
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Blurred vision
  • Floaters in the vision

The other disease that is quite common and can cause serious complications including loss of vision is glaucoma. The two main types of glaucoma that occur are:

  1. Open-angle glaucoma
  2. Acute-angle closure glaucoma

The symptoms vary according to the type of glaucoma and also its severity. The hallmark symptom is the loss of peripheral vision. To understand it better get in touch with Ophthalmologist online. The other symptoms of the affected eye are:

Open-angle glaucoma:

  • Blind spots like patches in the peripheral vision and sometimes in central vision
  • Tunnel vision which means that the things are only clear if near to the center of the field of view occur in advanced stages

Acute-angle closure glaucoma:

  • Severe headache and eye pain
  • Blurred vision
  • Appearance of halos around lights
  • Redness
  • Nausea and vomiting

If any of these symptoms occur and doesn’t resolve on its own, one should consult an ophthalmologist at the earliest.

  • Why choose online doctor consultation?

By opting for an online Ophthalmologist consultation, the patients, from the comfort of their homes, can choose from a variety of doctors selected from the best available in India. In this way, the patient can at least get a fair amount of idea related to the problem he/she is having and can visit a nearby doctor if advised by the doctor consulting online or meet the same doctor if that is possible

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Frequently asked questions about Eye Specialist,Ophthalmologist

What is Ophthalmology?

Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases of the eye and visual system.

How often and when should I get my eyes checked?

By getting your eyes checked on a regular basis, or when you may think you are having troubles with your vision, you can keep your eyes healthy and stay clear of further complications. Many sight-threatening diseases, if detected early, can be cured or treated to prevent, or slow, the progression of any vision loss.

What is Lasik?

Lasik is a laser eye surgery used to treat nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism. This kind of surgery uses a laser to treat vision problems caused by refractive errors. You have a refractive error when your eye does not refract (bend) light properly.

What is the role of an Ophthalmologist?

An ophthalmologist is a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating the diseases of the eye. The different ophthalmologists then may have expertise in different areas like those treating diseases related to the lens or the cornea or the retina. Depending on the severity and the structure involved, ophthalmologist with the relevant expertise can be consulted.

What are the early signs of eye cancer?

The most common sign of eye cancer is problems in vision. The vision may either be blurry or there might be flashes or spots in the vision.

What are the most common eye surgeries?
Cataract surgery is the most common surgery not only in the category of eye surgeries but when compared to all the surgical procedures performed in the world. The other surgeries include retinal detachment surgeries, corneal transplants, LASIK procedure, glaucoma surgery, surgery to correct squint, etc.
Can too much sugar affect your eyes?

The sugar directly doesn’t affect the eyes but it can lead to diabetes which can cause problems in the retina known as diabetic retinopathy. Too much sugar should always be avoided as it can cause problems in all the major organ systems of the body.

What is low vision?
Low vision is a term describing a level of vision below normal (20/70 or worse) that cannot be corrected with conventional glasses. Low vision is not the same as blindness. People with low vision can use their sight. However, low vision may interfere with the performance of daily activities, such as reading or driving.
Can an optometrist treat pink eye?

No. It is the expertise of an ophthalmologist because the underlying condition needs to be first diagnosed.

Can too much sugar affect your eyes?

The sugar directly doesn’t affect the eyes but it can lead to diabetes which can cause problems in the retina known as diabetic retinopathy. Too much sugar should always be avoided as it can cause problems in all the major organ systems of the body.

How do I know if I have bacterial or viral conjunctivitis?

In bacterial infection, the discharge from the eyes is thick and unclear whereas that in viral infection it is much clearer and thinner. Also the lymph node swelling is seen in viral infection which is usually absent in bacterial infection.

Which fruit is best for eye vision?
Many natural foods and fruits are good for the eyes. These include dark leafy greens, carrots, sweet potatoes, apricots, mangoes, peaches, berries, bell peppers, avocados, soyabeans, etc.
What is the most common cause of conjunctivitis?

The most common causes are viral and bacterial infections. Get in touch with an ophthalmologist online to detect your infection if any.

Is coffee bad for macular degeneration?

It is the contrary. Drinking coffee daily along with eating a healthy diet can cut the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration.

Is viral conjunctivitis painful?

It depends on the cause. Usual viral conjunctivitis is not painful but causes itchiness and burning. Conjunctivitis caused by the herpes virus may cause additional problems leading to pain.

Should I consult an ophthalmologist if my baby has excessive watering from the eyes?

Watering in the eyes of the baby can be due to some common reasons like a cold or flu or can be due to some medical condition in the eye. It is better to consult an ophthalmologist online so as to rule out any serious disease of the eye.

Why does my child’s eyes turn inward?

Many conditions are responsible for this to occur but the end result is the loosening of the muscles that control the eyelids. The ophthalmologist can diagnose the cause and treat it accordingly

I have itchy and burning eyes that do not produce tears. What should I do?

This condition is quite common and maybe due to excessive working in front of the computer screens leading to dry eyes or due to some infection present in the eyes. An ophthalmologist evaluates and treats the infection if present.

I am not able to open eyes properly in the morning. What should I do?
This can sometimes happen due to infection in the eyes and can also lead to blurry or unclear vision. This sometimes passes on its own but if it persists, medical attention is required.
Is it normal to see something floating in the vision?

This is quite a common phenomenon and occurs to most people. But one should immediately see a doctor if the number of floaters increase suddenly or the same eye starts experiencing flashes of light or there is darkness in the sides of the vision that is peripheral vision loss.

I sometimes feel that I cannot see something passing through the side. Is it normal?

No this is not normal and is a result of some underlying disease. Disease like migraine can cause temporary vision loss but diseases like glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, scotoma, stroke and diabetic retinopathy can cause permanent vision loss. If you experience peripheral vision loss and your age is more than 50 years, you should immediately consult an ophthalmologist online to prevent further damage.

I am having pain in my left eye since more than 2 weeks. What should I do?

Pain in the eye can be due to some recent trauma to that area or due to an underlying infection. If the role of trauma is ruled out, an ophthalmologist needs to be consulted immediately.

My child’s eyes do not look aligned. What should I do?

This is caused due to a condition called strabismus. It might be hereditary or caused by some conditions at birth. It is usually diagnosed and treated by an ophthalmologist by the use of glasses and/or surgery.

  • Who is an Ophthalmologist?

An ophthalmologist is a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating the diseases of the eye. The different ophthalmologist then may have expertise in different areas like those treating diseases related to the lens or the cornea or the retina. Depending on the severity and the structure involved, ophthalmologist with the relevant expertise can be consulted. You can choose to take an appointment for online consultation with ophthalmologist to understand and discuss your issues sitting at ease at home.

  • How often should I visit an Ophthalmologist?

There is no fixed rule for seeing an ophthalmologist. If you have got any problems in the eye that is bothering or worrisome or if you face problems in vision, then you should consult the ophthalmologist to get the problem solved.

  • Can Ophthalmologist cure cataracts?

Cataracts cannot be cured but they can be removed surgically and replaced by intraocular lens. This surgery is the most widely performed surgery in the world and is very safe.

  • Are Ophthalmologist and Optometrist the same?

No they are not the same. Ophthalmologists can perform eye surgeries whereas optometrists cannot. Optometrist can help correct vision problems by prescribing spectacles or contact lenses.

  • Why should an individual consult an Ophthalmologist?

An ophthalmologist helps in diagnosing and treating the diseases of the eye. So if any problem occurs in the eye, an ophthalmologist should be consulted so as to treat any underlying problem at the earliest. You can get in touch with an Ophthalmologist online to diagnose your eye diseases and get treated for the same. 

  • Can Ophthalmologist cure color blindness?

Color blindness that is present from birth cannot be treated but it doesn’t affect daily routine activities. Special contact lenses or glasses can help. Acquired form of color blindness can be treated by an ophthalmologist who can diagnose the underlying condition or the drug that caused the problem.

  • What surgeries can be performed by an Ophthalmologist?

Many kind of surgeries affecting the structures inside the eye can be operated by an ophthalmologist. This includes cataract surgery, retinal detachment procedures, LASIK procedure (surgeries that correct vision), corneal transplant, etc.

  • What causes red eyes?

A number of conditions ranging from infections to inflammation of any of the structure inside the eyes can cause red eyes. It is very important to diagnose the cause before jumping to any conclusion.

  • What is the treatment for Red Eyes?

The treatment depends upon the underlying condition causing it. The causes can be varied and it is very important to diagnose the cause before starting any medication.

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