The nervous system is made of two parts: Central nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord  and the Peripheral nervous system involving all other neural elements, such as eyes, ears, skin, and other sensory receptors. Cancer is the uncontrolled division of cells due to the mutations in the cell DNA. Neurological cancer is cancer of the brain or spine. Sometimes it affects both areas of the body at once. Brain cancer occurs when cells inside your brain reproduce uncontrollably, forming a mass. This mass, also called a tumor, can be cancerous (high grade, malignant) or noncancerous (low grade, benign).Malignant neurological tumors can invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of your brain. Benign tumors don’t spread, but they can still cause neurological cancer symptoms, especially if they grow to be quite large. A tumor that grows into or presses on an area of the brain may stop that part of the brain from working the way  it should, whether the tumor itself is benign or malignant, and will then require treatment.

The most common type of brain tumor seen does not originate from the brain tissue itself, but rather are metastases from extracranial cancers such as lung cancer and breast cancer. primary and metastatic. Many cancers exhibit a propensity of spread towards the CNS, and brain metastases are common problems seen in malignancies such as lung, breast, and melanoma. Such spread may involve the brain or spine parenchyma or the subarachnoid space. In the PNS, spread is usually through direct infiltration of nerve roots, plexi, or muscle by neighboring malignancies

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When cancer affects the nervous system it may result in significant neurologic morbidity and mortality. These effects may be direct with cancer involvement of the brain, spine, or peripheral nervous system (PNS)—or indirect as in paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes are rare disorders associated with cancer, not caused by direct invasion, metastasis or consequences of treatment. They are usually autoimmune in nature. Often, PNS precedes the manifestations of cancer. Primary brain tumors include tumors that originate from the tissues of the brain or the brain's immediate surroundings. Primary tumors are categorized as glial (composed of glial cells) or non-glial (developed on or in the structures of the brain, including nerves, blood vessels and glands) and benign or malignant.

 In some cases, cancer has sudden, devastating effects on the nervous system: epidural spinal cord compression or cord transection from pathologic fractures of vertebra involved by cancer; increased intracranial pressure from intracranial mass lesion growth and edema; and uncontrolled seizure activity as a result of intracranial tumors (status epilepticus), which are neuro-oncologic emergencies. Treatment of cancer can have neurologic complications. The commonest of these complications are radiation-induced injury to the brain, spine, and peripheral nerves and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The suppressant effect of cancer and its treatment on the body’s immune system can result in infectious complications within the nervous system.

  • Symptoms vary depending on the location of the brain tumor, but the following may accompany different types of brain tumors:
  • Headaches that may be more severe in the morning or awaken the patient at night
  • Seizures or convulsions
  • Difficulty thinking, speaking or articulating
  • Personality changes
  • Weakness or paralysis in one part or one side of the body
  • Loss of balance or dizziness
  • Vision changes
  • Hearing changes
  • Facial numbness or tingling
  • Nausea or vomiting, swallowing difficulties
  • Confusion and disorientation
Sophisticated imaging techniques can pinpoint brain tumors. Diagnostic tools include computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is used to examine the tumor's chemical profile and determine the nature of the lesions seen on the MRI. Positron emission tomography (PET scan) can help detect recurring brain tumors.
Treatment is based on the type of tumor and other factors, and often more than one type of treatment is used.

  • Radiation Therapy  a type of cancer treatment that uses beams of intense energy to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy most often uses X-rays, but protons or other types of energy also can be used. 
  • Chemotherapy for is a drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill fast-growing cells in your body. Chemotherapy is most often used to treat cancer, since cancer cells grow and multiply much more quickly than most cells in the body.
  • Targeted Drug Therapy  is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to target specific genes and proteins that are involved in the growth and survival of cancer cells.
  • Alternating Electric Field Therapy for Adult Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors is a novel anticancer treatment that disrupts tumor cell mitosis. where a single cell divides into two identical daughter cells .
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