Heart is one of the principal organs of the body entrusted with the important function of pumping blood throughout the body while also receiving the impure (deoxygenated) blood and sending it to lungs for purification (oxygenation). The heart beats for around 3 billion times and pumps around 400 million liters of blood during an average adult life (approximately 75 years). It is made up of 4 chambers: 2 upper chambers and 2 lower chambers. The upper chambers are known as atria (singular: atrium) and the lower chambers are known as ventricles. The impure blood returns to the heart from various parts of the body to the right side. It is then pumped into the lungs, purified (oxygenated), sent back to the left side of the heart and then pumped to the entire body including the heart itself. This unidirectional flow of blood is very important for the normal functioning of heart. To ensure this happens, Nature has provided us with 4 valves that do not allow backflow of blood. 

To pump blood, the heart needs to contract and relax in a rhythmical pattern and the stimulus for this is given by the intrinsic (of its own) pacemaker activity present in the heart. The pace-making cells originate in the anatomical site in the heart called the SA (sinoatrial node). These produce the electrical current necessary for the contraction of the heart. For this to occur, the heart cells are specialized in a way that each cell is connected to the other one and thus the current flows without the need to generate it again. There are porous junctions known as intercalated discs that help the flow of electrolytes from one cell to the other thus making the flow of current possible. Heart cells have to function constantly and so they have very high number of mitochondria, the latter known as the powerhouse of the cell. Because of this, the heart cells never become fatigued in normal conditions. Since heart has the most important function of pumping blood to all the organs of the body, it is a very vital organ and disturbances in its working can lead to many diseases.To find the best cardiac disease treatment in India you can check out Mediflam website and choose the right treatment and doctor for your problem and recovery process. 

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Frequently asked questions about Cardiac

What conditions can be treated by a bypass surgery?

Bypass surgery is usually indicated when the blood flow to heart is impeded or obstructed due to certain pathologies. Heart needs a constant supply of blood as it has the principal function in the body of supplying blood to all the organs. The main arteries that supply blood to heart, coronary arteries, get blocked due to many reasons. The chief reason is the development of atherosclerosis. In this condition, fat deposits in the arteries result in the formation of plaques. This and the ensuing inflammation narrow down the arteries resulting in impeded blood flow to the heart. The other reasons that usually necessitate a bypass surgery are : 

  • left main coronary disease
  • triple-vessel disease with normal or diminished ejection fraction
  • two-vessel disease with involvement of the proximal left-sided anterior descending coronary artery with normal or diminished ejection fraction
  • unstable (crescendo) angina
  • post-myocardial infarction angina
  • life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias with greater than 50% left main disease or triple-vessel disease
  • acute coronary occlusion after percutaneous coronary intervention
  • persistent symptoms despite maximal medical therapy 
  • coronary artery and the need for heart surgery for other indications
  • mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction
  • ventricular septal defect
  • acute mitral regurgitation
  • free wall rupture
  • cardiogenic shock
Does bypass surgery cause secondary infections?

Usually antibiotics are prescribed for the prevention of infections. Sometimes infection may occur at the site from where the vein or artery is harvested. These are usually managed by the use of antibiotics and other medications suggested by doctors of cardiac diseases treatment in India.

How many days are needed to recover after a bypass surgery?

The patient usually have to be in the ICU for 18-24 hours and if everything is normal, gets discharged in a week.

Which is the most common heart valve surgery?

The heart contains 4 valves that ensure unidirectional flow of blood. Out of these, the aortic valve is subjected to maximum pressure as it has to pump blood against a strong resistance of the blood flow in aorta. Thus this is the valve that is the most vulnerable to damage and often the valve that presents with pathological complications.

Is aortic valve surgery done in India?

Aortic valve is the most vulnerable valve as it has to pump blood against the strong resistance of the blood flow in aorta. India is home to some of the best cardiac hospitals and cardiac surgeons where Aortic valve surgeries are routinely done. The benefit of getting cardiac disease treatment in India is that the treatments are done at a fraction of cost than the advanced western countries with the same kind of quality and professionalism.

What is the meaning of a hole in heart and how is it treated?

The heart is divided into the right and the left heart by a septum. This prevents the mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood. When there is a hole in this septum, it is referred to as hole in the heart. If the hole is in the upper part of the septum, it is called Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) and if it is in the lower part of the septum, it is called Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD). ASD usually closes in the first after birth. If not it might require medical attention. The usual procedures are catheterization or surgery to close the hole. VSD is usually easy to control if it doesn’t show any symptoms. If medical attention is needed, attention is given to the nutrition of the child and if the hole doesn’t close by itself, open heart surgery is needed to close it. 

What are the diagnostic tests and procedures for detecting heart diseases?

The tests usually start with the most basic but quite significant which includes the physical examination of the patient and using methods like auscultation to hear the heart sounds. Any abnormality can be further evaluated. The other diagnostic tests for evaluating heart diseases in India include:

  • Electrocardiography (ECG): It measures the electrical activity of the heart by placing electrodes on the chest surface. Any abnormality in the ECG can suggest presence of diseases. The cardiologists are experts in diagnosing particular diseases based on the deviation of the normal waves. 
  • Stress tolerance test: ECG is usually followed by stress testing where the patient is made to run on the treadmill and then the ECG is done. 
  • Cardiac imaging using radioisotopes to detect ischemic myocardium and measure ventricular function
  • Echocardiography
  • Cardiac catheterization and coronary arteriography are used to determine coronary artery anatomy and if the patient would benefit from 
  • Angioplasty
  • Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery
  • Other revascularization procedures
  • Coronary artery calcium may be useful in detecting early disease
When is heart transplant required?

Heart transplant is done in patients where all other options of medical interventions including medications and surgeries are exhausted and still the heart is not able to function properly. It is a complex surgery and should be kept as the last resort.

How successful is the heart transplant surgery in India?

The success rate of heart transplant in India is more than 85%. However, extreme caution needs to be exercised post-surgery. Regular follow ups, checkups and necessary precautions are mandatory after the surgery to recover fast without any complications.

The cost for heart bypass is very low in India when compared to the advanced western countries. Is the quality compromised?

India is home to some of the best cardiac hospitals and cardiac surgeons. These experts have a vast amount of experience in their respective fields. Highly advanced techniques and instruments are used for the surgery. The same quality and care as in western countries is given in India and the same amount of professionalism is exercised.

What type of pacemakers are used in India?

Pacemaker is an electronic device which is placed under chest and helps to restore the normal electrical activity of the heart. It is usually used to treat severe arrhythmias which are not controlled by medications. The different types of pacemakers used in India are single chamber pacemaker, double chamber pacemaker and biventricular pacemaker.

How successfully can arrhythmia be treated in India?

Arrhythmias can be successfully managed by the use of medications or placing pacemakers that control the electrical activity of the heart. There are highly experienced cardiologists that excel in the treatment of arrhythmias and can manage them efficiently. 

What is the frequency of changing the pacemakers? OR How long does an implanted pacemaker work?

Usually the pacemaker lasts for 4-8 years. Biventricular pacemakers usually last shorter than the other pacemakers. The life of the pacemakers also depend on the dependency of the patient on the pacemaker.

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About Cardiovascular Diseases :
Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for most of the deaths that occur worldwide and is now emerging as a major healthcare threat even in the developing nations. The sedentary lifestyle in the modern times along with wrong food habits has been responsible for a large number of metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes which pose as significant risk factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The other risks are smoking, hypertension and little to no exercise in the daily routine. To get the best cardiac treatment in India you can check out our website assuring the best of medical services.

Different cardiovascular diseases that occur depend on the complications and structures involved. As the heart is one of the most vital organs responsible for supplying blood to all the organs to itself, if there is deficit in blood supply to the heart, serious complications can ensue. Also if the valves malfunction, the blood can backflow and cause significant problems. If there are some problems in the electrical conduction, the normal rhythm can be disrupted resulting in serious arrhythmias. Some of the diseases are congenital that is present at birth. These include diseases that affect the tight septum that separate the left and the right heart. If the separation is not secured, mixing of pure and impure blood can occur leading to fatal consequences. The common diseases are PDA (Patent Ductus Arteriosus), Tetralogy of Fallot among others. 

What are the Types of Cardiovascular Diseases?

The types of cardiovascular diseases are classified depending on the cause and the structure involved. When blood doesn’t reach the heart, a condition called ischemia occurs and the disease is referred to as Ischemic Heart Disease. Usually angioplasty with or without stenting is done to treat this disease. The final resort is to undergo a Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery. The other diseases are:

Diseases caused due to valve malfunction : The diseases of the valves are usually classified under two categories:

    1. Stenosis – the valve narrows and impedes the flow of blood
    2. Regurgitation – the valve leaks causing the blood to backflow

    Now depending on the valve affected, the following diseases occur:

    Aortic valve:The aortic valve is present between the left ventricle and the aorta and prevents flow of blood back into the left ventricle after the latter contracts. This valve is the most affected valve because it has to pump blood in the aorta which has a high pressure and thus offer significant resistance. The problems that occur are:

    • Aortic stenosis
    • Aortic regurgitation

    Mitral valve : It is present between the left atrium and the left ventricle and prevents blood from flowing back into the left atrium. The problems that occur are:

    • Mitral valve prolapse
    • Mitral valve stenosis
    • Mitral valve regurgitation

    Tricuspid valve: It is named so because it has three cusps or leaflets. It is present between the right atrium and the right ventricle and prevents blood flowing back to the right atrium. The common problems involving this valve include:

    • Tricuspid atresia
    • Tricuspid regurgitation
    • Tricuspid stenosis

    Pulmonary valve: It is present between the right ventricle and the lungs. It prevents the blood flowing back into the right ventricle. The problems that occur are:

    • Pulmonary valve regurgitation
    • Pulmonary valve stenosis

    Diseases caused due to disturbances in the electrical conduction of the heart:

    When the normal rhythm of the heart is disrupted, arrhythmias may occur. The heartbeat may slow down or may increase depending on the pathology. Slower heartbeat is referred to as bradyarrhythmia whereas faster heartbeat is known as tachyarrhtymia. The different types of arrhythmias are:

    • Sinoatrial node bradyarrhythmia
    • Atrioventricular node bradyarrhythmia
    • Supraventricular tachyarrhythmia
    • Nonphysiologic sinus tachycardia
    • Focal atrial tachycardia
    • Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
    • Atrial flutter
    • Atrial fibrillation
    • Ventricular arrhythmia
    • Sustained ventricular tachycardia
    • Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation
    • Electrical storm and incessant ventricular tachycardia

    Diseases caused due to problems in the coronary and peripheral vasculature:

    The coronary arteries are the main vessels that provide blood to the heart. Any malfunction or narrowing in these arteries can cause reduction in the blood flow resulting in serious complications. The diseases that are included under this category are:

    • Ischemic heart disease (IHD)
    • Non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome
    • ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction
    • Hypertensive vascular disease
    • Diseases of the aorta
    • Pulmonary hypertension
    Apart from the diseases listed above, some of the diseases are congenital that is present at birth. These include diseases that affect the tight septum that separate the left and the right heart. If the separation is not secured, mixing of pure and impure blood can occur leading to fatal consequences. The common diseases are PDA (Patent Ductus Arteriosus), Tetralogy of Fallout among others.
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