The kidneys are bean-shaped organs situated at the bottom of the rib cage. The main function of the kidney is to get rid of excess water and waste at the same time preserving essential electrolytes within the body. The kidneys secrete hormones that regulate blood pressure and stimulate the production of red blood cells within the bone marrow. Kidney failure may stem due to numerous causes. Failure of the kidney to function properly may lead to a lot of complications.

Each kidney has many tiny filters called nephrons. Blood comes into the kidney, and into the nephrons and remove excess water and waste in the form of urine. The filtered blood goes back into the body. Urine exits the kidneys via the bladder by the ureters and leaves the body through the urethra.If blood stops flowing into a kidney, part or all of it could die leading to kidney failure. Kidney diseases can also affect the nephrons affecting the waste removal mechanism.

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NOTE: Above More accurate treatment cost estimates can be provided if medical reports are emailed to us or after the patient is examined by doctors after arrival at hospital in India and medical tests are done after admission.

Frequently asked questions about Kidney

What are the signs and symptoms of kidney failure?

Symptoms of kidney failure are:

  • Lethargy
  • Weakness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Generalized swelling (edema)
  • Generalized weakness 
  • Loss of appetite
  • Lethargy
  • Fatigue
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Metabolic acidosis
  • High blood potassium (hyperkalemia)
  • Arrhythmias- irregular heart rhythm
  • Pericarditis (inflammation of the heart lining) 
  • Low calcium blood levels (hypocalcemia)
What are the tests that diagnose kidney failure?

The two tests: 

  • ACR (Albumin to Creatinine Ratio) 
  • Urine output measurements- determine the cause of  kidney failure.
  • Urine tests. 
  • Blood tests-urea and creatinine level Glomerular filtration rate(GFR- measure kidney function)
  • Imaging tests- ultrasound and computerized tomography may be used.
  • kidney biopsy Removing a sample of kidney tissue for testing.
What is the treatment for kidney failure?

Treatments may include:

  • Medications to control blood pressure, cholesterol, anemia. 
  • Medications to protect your bones 

Treatment for end-stage kidney disease

  • Dialysis: removing waste products and excess waste from the blood when the kidneys can no longer do this. 
  • Kidney transplant- involves surgically placing a healthy donor kidney into the patients body. 
What doctor to consult for kidney problems?

A nephrologist specializes in diseases and conditions that affect the kidneys. 

Can kidneys repair themselves?

New research shows that the kidneys are regenerating and repairing themselves throughout life. 

Is kidney damage reversible?

Acute kidney failure can be fatal and requires intensive treatment, although it may be reversible. 

Is my back pain kidney related?

Kidney pain is felt in the upper half of the back and would be felt on either sides or both just under the ribs unlike back pain.

Which hospitals are best for kidney transplant in India?
  • Jaslok Hospital, Mumbai
  • NU Hospital, Bangalore
  • Yashoda Hospital, Secunderabad
  • Lilavati Hospital Mumbai India
  • Saifee Hospital Mumbai India
  • Seven Hills Hospital
  • AMRI Hospitals, Kolkata
  • Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai
How many days will I have to stay in the hospital after the kidney transplant ?

The length of the stay depends on any complications. Usually 6-10 days stay if there are no complications.

Where can I get a kidney donor in India?

ASTRA is an NGO in Mumbai they can help find a suitable donor to swap with if a family member is not available.

Can we live with one kidney?

One kidney can function well even in the absence of the other.The loss in kidney function is usually very mild, and life span is normal. Most people with one kidney live healthy, normal lives with few problems.

Is dialysis better than kidney transplant?

Dialysis and kidney transplant are not cures but a solution to the kidneys inability to function. A patient post transplant has a better quality of life.

Can one live long on dialysis?

Average life expectancy on dialysis is 5-10 years. in case of any comorbidities it may reduce.

How long does dialysis take?

It takes nearly four hours and is done thrice a week

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Common signs of Kidney Disease

  • Tired, have less energy or are having trouble concentrating more than usual.
  • Trouble sleeping. 
  • Dry and itchy skin. 
  • Frequency to urinate
  • Blood in your urine
  • Foamy urine
  • Puffiness around your eyes
  • Swollen ankle and feet
  • Poor appetite
  • Muscle cramping

Common kidney conditions:

  • Pyelonephritis (infection of kidney pelvis)
  • Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis)
  • Chronic renal failure
  • End-stage renal disease (ESRD): Complete loss of kidney strength,  due to progressive chronic kidney disease. 
  • Diabetic nephropathy: kidney damage due to diabetes
  • Hypertensive nephropathy: Kidney damage caused by high blood pressure. 
  • Kidney cancer


  • Antibiotics: Kidney infections caused by bacteria are treated with antibiotics. 
  • Nephrostomy: A tube (catheter) is placed through the skin into the kidney to drain urine 
  • Lithotripsy: ultrasound shock waves projected to break the kidney stones.
  • Nephrectomy: removal of a kidney
  • Dialysis: filtering the blood of excess wastes and water.
  • Kidney transplant.
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