The shoulder is a ball and socket joint that consists of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (shoulder blade), and the humerus (upper arm bone). The head of the humerus (upper arm bone) fits into the glenoid of the scapula- (socket of the shoulder blade). The ligaments and tendons help stabilize the joint. The muscles provide the shoulder with a wide range of movement. The shoulder joint gives good mobility but lacks in terms of stability. Shoulder pain develops usually due to overuse of a muscle or injury to it. Repetitive use injuries primarily affect the deep muscles that provide stability. Most shoulder problems fall into four major categories: Tendon inflammation (bursitis or tendinitis) or tendon tear, Instability, Arthritis, Fracture (broken bone).
The glenohumeral joint (another name for the shoulder joint) allows a wide range of movement. The surfaces of the bones where the ball and socket meet are covered with cartilage that absorbs shock and allows the joint to move easily. The other structuresare:
The synovium (protective capsule) produces a fluid (synovial fluid) to cushion and lubricate the joint.
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The common causes of shoulder pain are as below:
Other causes of shoulder pain include:
It is characterized by stiffness and pain in the shoulder joint. The condition occurs more commonly in people with diabetes or those who've kept their arm immobilised for a long period of time.
The non operative treatments to relieve the shoulder pain are as below:
It usually takes three to four months to heal. Complete activities can be resumed by six months.
The below are few of the shoulder tests which are generally done:
Rotator cuff are muscle that stabilize the shoulder joint which hurt due to repeated activities. Impingement syndrome is due to the tendons(connective tissue) rubbing on the shoulder blade due to repeated activities.
The complications are-
Pain from the shoulder may radiate down to the arm in case of cervical radiculopathy. Cervical radiculopathy also known as pinched nerve occurs when a nerve in the neck is compressed at its origin.
Superior lesion anterior to posterior(SLAP) lesion is damage to the labrum(cartilage at the shoulder socket rim) where the biceps tendon connects.
Bankart lesion is an injury to the anterior glenoid labrum due to the anterior dislocation of the shoulder. It needs surgical reduction of the dislocation and repair of the labral tear.
Common shoulder issues:
Treatment may include Rest, activity modifications, Physiotherapy, medications or surgery.
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