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Cancer is defined as the uncontrolled growth of cells that do not serve any normal function of the normal cells and yet compete for nutrition and other chemical substances thus starving the normal cells and eventually causing them to die. This uncontrolled growth can be due to a number of reasons that cause genetic changes. The cells may not respond to anti-growth signals or death signals, they may start producing their own growth signals and they may also cause the formation of new blood vessels that supply them so that they are not deprived of nutrition. The last process is called angiogenesis. The resultant necrosis of the normal cells is the reason for extreme pain and the loss of normal function that accompany cancer. Cancer is classified as benign or malignant cancer. Malignancy is the ability of the cancer cells to invade nearby tissues and thus are very hard to treat and the leading cause of death. Sometimes when the cancer is detected at a particular location in the body, it is the metastatic form of cancer that started somewhere else in the body. Benign cancer is usually not lethal and can be surgically removed. The symptoms of the benign tumor occurs only when the mass of cells that grow start pressing the internal structures.
Once the cell turns cancerous, it starts multiplying continuously. It divides thousands of times before a tumor becomes a size similar to that of a pea. It may take many years for a tumor to be visible on an X-ray or to be felt by hand. Neck and head cancer is a term that is used to define cancer which develops in the throat, mouth, nose, salivary glands, and other parts of the neck and head. Most of these cancers are thin flat cell carcinomas that are cancer which starts in the lining of the nose, throat, and mouth. 85% of neck and head cancers are associated with the use of tobacco, and 75% of it is linked with the combination of alcohol and tobacco use. Based on their location, neck, and head tumors, treatment-related side effects may harm the patient’s ability to swallow, eat and breathe.
NOTE: Above More accurate treatment cost estimates can be provided if medical reports are emailed to us or after the patient is examined by doctors after arrival at hospital in India and medical tests are done after admission.
The major sites of the neck and head cancer are the voice box or the larynx, including the glottis – which is the opening between the vocal folds in the larynx, supraglottis, and subglottis. It also includes an oral cavity like the floor of the mouth, hard palate, the lining of the cheeks, back of the lips, a bony ridge which holds the sockets of the teeth, upper and lower part of the jaw. Other parts like the posterior and lateral pharyngeal walls, Oropharynx which is the middle part of the throat, base of the tongue, soft palate, and tonsils.
Common causes attributed to cancer development:
Common Symptoms of ENT related cancers:
Diagnosis usually involves complete blood and urine tests, biopsy, and imaging investigations like X-ray, CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET CT. After a suitable identification, the oncologist may decide about the course of the treatment which may involve radiation, surgery, chemotherapy which is a treatment that uses strong chemicals to kill the growing cells in the body, or may use immunotherapy – this treatment helps the immune system to fight cancer, or targeted therapy – this treatment uses medicines to target precise genes which are responsible for the survival and growth of cancer cells. Apart from these treatments, doctors may also help to deal with the side effects of treatment and also provide psychosocial support.
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