The prostate is a small walnut-sized gland. It is located between the bladder and the penis just in front of the rectum in males. It is a part of the reproductive system. The function of the prostate is to produce fluid for semen, which transports sperm during the male orgasm. This prostatic fluid consists ofenzymes secreted into the semen that prevent clotting in the ejaculate allowing the semen to be in a fluid state even whilst moving in the female reproductive system to allow potential fertilization. The prostatic fluid nourishes and protects sperm. During ejaculation, the prostate squeezes this fluid into the urethra, and is expelled with the sperm as semen.

The prostate glands produce fluid that forms part of semen that is emitted during ejaculation as part of the male sexual response. This prostatic fluid is slightly alkaline, milky white in appearance. The acidity of the vaginal tract is neutralized by the alkalinity, thereby prolonging the life of sperm. This smooth muscle action of the prostate expel this fluid in the first part of ejaculate,  with most of the sperm. The sperms release by the prostate have better survival rate, better motility and protection of genetic material as opposed to those sperms released by the seminal vescicles.

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Frequently asked questions about Prostate

What are the symptoms of Prostate Problems?

The below are the symptoms of prostate problems are as below:

  • Urgency
  • Need to get up many times during the night to urinate
  • Blood in urine or semen
  • Burning urination
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Frequent pain or stiffness in lower back, hips, pelvic or rectal area, or upper thighs
  • Dribbling of urine
What are the types of Prostate disease?

The three most common types of prostate disease are:

  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland. 
  • Prostatitis: swelling and inflammation of the prostate. it may be caused by a bacterial infection, injury and autoimmune disorders. Men of all ages can get prostatitis, and it can occur in any size prostate (enlarged or not).
  • Prostate cancer: initial stages may not cause any symptoms.
What is the likelihood of the prostate cancer spreading?

The prostate cancer cells metastasize(spread) nearly 80percent of the time, they may invade bones, such as the hip, spine, and pelvis bones by means of blood or the lymphatic system.

What are prostate cancer screening test?

The prostate cancer screening test are:

  • Prostate specific antigen test(PSA): A blood sample is checked for PSA that is normally present in a small amount in the body, if present in excess could indicate cancer and needs further investigations.
  • Digital rectal exam(DRE): to feel for hard areas or bumps on the prostate that might indicate cancer.
  • Prostate biopsy: if PSA and DRE indicate cancer this procedure is done to confirm the diagnosis.
What is the treatment for prostate cancer?

The treatment for prostate cancer are:

Active surveillance- monitoring the prostate growth using the investigation test

Surgery: removal of the prostate

Radiation therapy: kills or slows the cancer cell growth

cryotherapy: controlled freezing of the prostate kills the cancer cells

Focal therapy and high intensity focused ultrasound(HIFU)- HIFU uses the sound waves to super heat the tumour cells to kill them. Focal therapy-the tumour is circles with a special solution that causes freezing of the tumor cells thereby killing them.

Hormonal therapy: Drugs are used to lower testosterone and other male hormones that supply cancer cells

Chemotherapy: drugs used to destroy cancer cells

Immunotherapy: stimulates the bodys immune system to attack the cancer cells.

Which hospitals are best for Prostate Cancer Treatment in India?

The best hospitals For Prostate Cancer Treatment in India

  • Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai.
  • Fortis Hospitals Mulund, Mumbai. 
  • Healthcare Global Enterprises Ltd (HCG), Bangalore
  • Medanta The Medicity Hospital, Gurgaon
  • Dharamshila Narayana Superspeciality Hospital, Delhi
  • Apollo Hospitals, Mumbai
  • MPCT Hospital, Mumbai.
  • CIMS Hospital Ahmedabad
  • Zydus Hospital Ahmedabad
Which Surgeons are best in India for prostate surgery?
  • Dr.Harit Chaturvedi
  • Dr.Kapil kumar
  • Dr.Aruna Chandrashekaharan
  • Dr.Rajesh Mistry
  • Dr.Sabyasachi Bal

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Symptoms of Prostate Problems

  • Urgency
  • Frequent night time urination
  • Blood in urine or semen.
  • Pain or burning urination.
  • Painful ejaculation.
  • Pain in low back, hips, pelvic or rectal area, or upper thighs.
  • Dribbling of urine.

Prostate Conditions

  • Prostatitis: Swelling and inflammation of the prostate, that may be due to injury. autoimmune disorder and infection. 
  • Enlarged prostate: or benign prostatic hypertrophy or BPH, prostate growth affects virtually all men over 50. 
  • Prostate cancer: common form of cancer in men (besides skin cancer).

Prostate Treatments

Prostatitis: treatment usually involves antibiotics and NSAIDs for pain relief.

Enlarged Prostate Treatment:

Medications: are two of types: one that relaxes the muscles and the other shrinks the prostate allowing free flow of urine.

Surgery for an enlarged prostate: When conservative management does not provide relief. Transurethral approach, lazer surgery and open.

Prostate Cancer Treatment

Surgery: removal of the prostate

  • Radiation therapy: kills prostate cancer cells 
  • Cryotherapy: involves killing prostate cancer cells by freezing them.
  • Hormone therapy: drugs used to block the effect of testosterone and other male hormones on the prostatic cancer cells effect.
  • Chemotherapy-drugs kill  the cancer cells
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