The body contains numerous bones and muscles that help us to move from one place to another and also gives us support while performing any function. The other structures that help in this function are ligaments and tendons. Each individual bone is an organ composed of several different tissues, epithelium, blood-forming tissue, adipose tissue and nervous tissue. The skeletal system consists of bones and their cartilages. The study of bone structure and the treatment of bone disorders is termed osteology. The doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases or disorders of the musculoskeletal system, which includes both medical and surgical aspects, is called an Orthopedician or orthopedic doctor.Mediflam offers detailed information about Orthopedic treatment in India along with variety of medical tourism services.

Various diseases affect the musculoskeletal system. Differential diagnosis is of utmost importance as this helps to get an accurate diagnosis and avoid excessive diagnostic testing and unnecessary treatment. Several diseases need immediate diagnosis to avoid major complications. These include septic arthritis, acute crystal-induced arthritis (gout) and fracture. The symptoms that become the suspects of these diseases include acute onset and monoarticular or focal musculoskeletal pain. Majority of the complaints can be diagnosed by taking thorough history and doing comprehensive physical and musculoskeletal examination. It is very important in the first encounter to determine if the complaint is of an origin that require immediate medical attention like that of septic arthritis, gout or fracture or is not that serious. The following concerns regarding the complaint should be addressed

  • If the origin is articular or non-articular
  • If the condition is inflammatory or non-inflammatory
  • If it is acute or chronic
  • If it is localized (monoarticular) or widespread (polyarticular) in distribution

The correct diagnosis is very important as the symptoms of various musculoskeletal disorders resemble and may take quite a long time to evolve into a recognizable diagnostic entity. 

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Frequently asked questions about Orthopedics

What conditions can lead to the need for a knee replacement surgery?

Knee replacement is required when pain in the knee becomes unbearable caused by a number of factors. The most common reason is osteoarthritis. It is a degenerative disease where the cartilage which acts as a cushion between two bones involved in a synovial joint degenerate and cause the failure of the joint. This disease usually affects persons aged over 50 years and since it is degenerative, new tissue cannot be degenerated and eventually patient has to undergo knee replacement to restore normal quality of life. The other major reason is the development of rheumatoid arthritis. It is an autoimmune disease that targets the cartilage and leads to its destruction. Less common reasons include trauma to the knee and the subsequent injury to the cartilage, infective arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, etc. Knee replacement may be partial or total depending on the extent of damage to the joint.

How successful is a knee replacement surgery in India?

Knee replacement surgery is almost 100% successful in India and employs the latest techniques and instruments. India has got some of the best orthopedic surgeons and hospitals having a vast amount of experience in the treatment procedures.

Will I be able to walk again after a knee replacement surgery?

The quality of life is restored to a great extent after this surgery. You can walk much better than what you used to. With proper care and physiotherapy post-surgery, normal walking without pain can be achieved to a great extent. 

How many days are needed to recover from a knee replacement surgery?

The patient can usually be discharged in 3-4 days after the surgery. After taking an orthopedic treatment in India, doctors suggest exercises to restore normal muscle function and mobility of the joint.

What is the difference between a total knee replacement and partial knee replacement?

Total knee replacement involves replacing the total joint whereas partial knee replacement involves replacing only the damaged part of the joint.

When is hip replacement surgery required?

If the pain in the groin area due to problems in the hip is unbearable, then hip replacement is advised. The cartilage that is present in synovial joint gets destroyed due to degenerative conditions like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and less common reasons are psoriatic arthritis, infective arthritis or trauma to the joint. Sometimes some infections like tuberculosis can also affect the hip joint and requires medical attention.

What is the difference between a total hip replacement and partial hip replacement?

Total hip replacement involves replacing the total joint whereas partial hip replacement involves replacing only the damaged part of the joint.

How successful is hip replacement surgery in India?

Hip replacement surgery is almost 100% successful in India and employs the latest techniques and instruments. India has got some of the best orthopedic surgeons along with some of the best hospitals for orthopedic treatment having a vast amount of experience in the treatment procedures.

What are the common age related bone problems and how are they treated in India?

Osteoporosis is a disease that affects females more than males and to people aged more than 50 years. Osteoarthritis is an age related degenerative disease that affects the elderly usually aged more than 50 years. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that attacks the cartilage and cause multiple problems in the joints. Osteomalacia is the softening of the bones that occur in the elderly. 

What are some of the bone diseases that affect children?

The common congenital diseases that is those diseases that are present from birth are : 

  • Rickets
  • Clubfoot
  • In-toeing
  • Bowlegs caused due to reasons other than rickets
  • Developmental dysplasia of the hip
  • Legg-Calve-Perthes disease
  • Scoliosis (lateral curvature and rotation of the spine)
  • Congenital muscular torticollis (twisted neck)
  • Kyphosis
  • Spondylosis and spondylolisthesis
  • Scheuermann’s disease
  • Fibrous dysplasia
  • Brittle bone disease
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Gorham’s disease. 
  • Trauma fractures and dislocations
Which bone diseases occur due to nutrient deficiency and how are they treated?

Vitamin D deficiency is the most common cause of bone diseases in humans. Rickets, osteoporosis and osteomalacia are some of the diseases caused by this vitamin deficiency which can be treated by opting for some of the orthopedic treatments in India assuring the required results.

What is scoliosis? Can it be treated by surgery?

Scoliosis refers to the lateral curvature and torsion of the spine. Its management is complex and decided by the type of scoliosis that is whether it is syndromic,congenital, neuromuscular or idiopathic. The pain is relieved by the use of medications. Bracing is the primary way of management and if it still is not manageable, then surgery might be advised. Surgery must be done when other options are not able to manage the disease. There are two types of surgery, anterior fusion and posterior fusion. Spinal fusion with instrumentation is the most widely performed surgery for scoliosis. Thoracoplasty is done as a complement surgery. Surgery without fusion is the method of choice in children.

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The most common conditions that occur in an individual involving multiple joints and causing pain is usually related to advanced age. These are degenerative conditions and the pattern of joint involvement differ with the diseases. These disease can be cured by opting for some of the best orthopedic treatment in India assuring the required results. The conditions include:

  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis

The other commonly occurring diseases are:

    • Psoriatic arthritis
    • Infective arthritis
    • Dactylitis (hand)
    • De Quervain’s tenosynovitis (hand)
    • Rotator cuff tear (shoulder)
    • Rotator cuff tendinitis (shoulder)
    • Sciatica 
    • Trochanteric bursitis (hip)
    • Tennis elbow
    • Osteoporosis
    • Paget’s disease
    • Fibromyalgia
    • Cubital tunnel syndrome
    • Carpal tunnel syndrome (wrist and fingers)
    • Golfer’s or baseball elbow
    • ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) injury
    • Kyphosis
    • Scoliosis
    • Soft tissue injuries
    Read more..
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