Gynecology is the field of medicine that deals with the study, diagnosis and treatment of the female reproductive system and the diseases affecting it. The female’s role in reproduction is more complicated than men. The essential functions of the reproductive system are:

  • The production of ovum in cyclical fashion that is releasing ovum every month. This is called ovulation.
  • Receiving sperms and transporting them to a site where it meets the ovum to cause fertilization. This is called conception. After conception, the developing embryo is implanted in the uterus.
  • Once the embryo is formed by the fertilization of ovum, maintaining the developing baby called fetus till it can be delivered. This period is called gestation or pregnancy
  • Formation of placenta is very important for the nourishment of the developing fetus and also for the exchange of gases between the mother and the fetus.
  • Giving birth to the baby once the gestation period is over. 

The different organs that work as a system and help accomplish the above functions are:

Ovaries: These are the female gonads that produce the secondary oocytes that mature to form the final eggs or ova that are released during ovulation. They also produce the hormones progesterone, estrogen, inhibin and relaxin.

Fallopian tubes: These act as the site for the deposition of mature eggs and the sperm usually meet the egg here leading to fertilization of ovum.

Uterus: This organ, also called the womb, is the site of implantation of the fertilized ovum which is called the embryo. It also serves as the site of the development of the fetus during pregnancy, and labor. When the egg is not fertilized, it is the uterus that is responsible for the monthly menstrual flow.

Vagina: The vagina acts as the entry for the sperms which then cause fertilization.

Vulva: The external genital organs are called vulva or pudendum collectively.

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Frequently asked questions about Gynecology & Obstetrics

Who is a Gynecologist?

A doctor who specializes in Gynecology is known as a Gynecologist. The doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating the diseases of the organs related to the women’s health, with a focus on the female reproductive systemis referred to as a Gynecologist.

When should one consult a Gynecologist?

Generally, Women start consulting a Gynecologist right from their early teens. Regular consultations or check-ups are advised which in turn can save you from any severe conditions. If a woman is undergoing symptoms such as pelvic, vulvar, and vaginal pain or abnormal bleeding from the uterus, should consult a Gynecologist online.  

What should one do if missed one or two days of birth control pills?

If you missed to take your pills for 1 or 2 days, take two pills as soon as possible and two pills the next day. That is how you will be back with your schedule. Or you can take a quick online consultation with gynecologist for your knowledge and satisfaction. 

What are some of the common surgeries performed by the Gynecologist

Hysterectomy – which is the removal of the uterus

Oophorectomy – which is the removal of the ovaries

Tubal ligation – It is a type of permanent sterilization

Hysteroscopy – which relates to the inspection of the uterine cavity

Dilation and curettage – It is the removal of the uterine contents for various reasons

Diagnostic laparoscopy – It is used to diagnose and treat sources of pelvic and abdominal pain 

Exploratory laparotomy – It is used to investigate the level of progression of benign or malignant disease

Various surgical treatments for urinary incontinence, including cystoscopy and sub-urethral slings.

Surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse, including the correction of cystocele and rectocele.

Appendectomy – This surgery is often performed to remove site of painful endometriosis implantation or prophylactically at the time of Caesarean section or hysterectomy. May also be performed as part of a staging operation for ovarian cancer.

Cervical Excision Procedures (including cryosurgery) – In this surgery, the cervix surface is removed which contains pre-cancerous cells that have been previously identified on Pap smear.

What age can I see a Gynecologist?

There are no particular age criteria to see a Gynecologist but yes one can start seeing a Gynecologist from their early teens. Regular checkups or online Gynecologist consultation are advised as well to get better awareness right from the start. 

What is the difference between a Gynecologist and Obstetrician?

A doctor who specializes in Gynecology is known as a Gynecologist. The doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating the diseases of the organs related to the women’s health, with a focus on the female reproductive system is referred to as a Gynecologist.

An obstetrician is a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating the surgical care of women and their child during pregnancy, childbirth, and post-natal care. 

How much calcium do women need per day?

Calcium is the most essential source for our bone health. The requirement of calcium in women around 50 years or younger is 1000 milligrams per day and women above 50 years require 1200 milligrams of calcium per day.

What kinds of tests does a Gynecologist do?


This test is done to screen for cervical cancer. The surface of the cervix consists of cells whose samples are taken to analyze. If any change appears in the cells, then it means human papillomavirus (HPV) is existing which is the main cause of cervical cancer.


This test is done to know whether a woman or a girl has a vaginal infection or not. If one notices any discoloration or unusual odor from the vaginal discharge, the test is necessary.


Through this test, a complete check-up is done in your ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes. The doctor gets to know a lot of information on this one test.


This test is usually done in younger women and is done to examine the breast tissue.


This test is recommended for women at a certain age. It’s done to know if there are any abnormalities or unusual growth in the breasts. If diagnosed early can be treated at the right time  

How can we confirm pregnancy?

There is a pregnancy hormone called human chorionic gonadatrophin (HCG) which is usually produced by the body when you are 4 weeks pregnant. 

There are various ways to detect early pregnancy:

Urine test is 97% accurate and convenient. It can be done at home or at the doctor’s clinic. 

Blood tests are considered a faster and more accurate way to detect pregnancy.

Ultrasonography is also a method to confirm the pregnancy. It’s a way to visualize the fetus in your womb at around four and a half weeks after your last menstrual period. 

What are different kinds of Gynecologist?

Gynecology has different specialties which include OB/GYN (Obstetrician/Gynecologist), Urogynecologist, Gynecologic Oncologist, and Reproductive Endocrinologist.

What is finger prick test in pregnancy?

In finger prick test, blood sample is been taken from a woman’s finger which is then blotted onto a card and sent to a lab for analysis.

When should I get my first Mammogram?

Ideally when you turn 40 years, you should go for your first Mammogram.

Is it safe to exercise when one is pregnant?

Yes, it’s safe to exercise during pregnancy but should be done with extra caution. Walking is the best exercise, yoga, and many more can be done to have a healthy time during pregnancy. One can take online gynecologist consultation to get more detailed information for the same. 

What is the best way to treat period cramps?

Drinking a lot of water, preferably warm or hot water benefits to the cramps, as they relax cramped muscles by increasing blood flow to your skin. Apart from this, placing a heating pad against the abdomen, resting, and drinking a lot of fluids helps in treating period cramps.

Recent Articles

The specialist who specializes in the field of gynecology is called a gynaecologist. Nowadays gynaecologists also specialize in obstetrics that deals with pregnancy and childbirth. The conditions that are commonly treated by a gynaecologist are : 

  • Issues related to menstruation, pregnancy, fertility, and menopause 
  • Family planning, including contraception, sterilization, and pregnancy termination
  • Pelvic organs tissues are treated, including ligaments and muscles
  • Sexually transmitted infections which are called STIs are also treated
  • Syndrome related to Ovary - Polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Urinary and fecal incontinence treat ovarian cysts, fibroids, breast disorders, vulvar and vaginal ulcers, and other non-cancerous changes
  • Premalignant conditions, such as endometrial hyperplasia, and cervical dysplasia
  • They also treat reproductive tract cancers, the breasts cancers, and pregnancy-related tumors
  • Congenital abnormalities of the female reproductive tract
  • Emergency care relating to gynecology
  • A chronic condition that affects the reproductive system which is referred to as Endometriosis
  • Pelvic inflammatory diseases, including abscesses
  • Sexuality, including health issues relating to same-sex and bisexual relationships
  • Sexual dysfunction
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