The stomach is an organ of the digestive system, specialized in the accumulation and digestion of food. It is a muscular, highly vascular bag-shaped organ that is distensible and may take varying shapes, depending on the build and posture of the person and the state of fullness of the organ. The stomach lies in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. The stomach receives food from the esophagus. As food reaches the end of the esophagus, it enters the stomach through a muscular valve called the lower esophageal sphincter. The stomach secretes acid and enzymes that digest food. Ridges of muscle tissue called rugae line the stomach. The stomach muscles contract periodically, churning food to enhance digestion.

The pyloric sphincter is a muscular valve that opens to allow food to pass from the stomach to the small intestine. The main function of the stomach involves mechanical and chemical digestion of ingested food. Ingested food enters the stomach from the esophagus via the lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac orifice), falling into gastric juice produced by the stomach. Repetitive muscle contractions physically churn food particles, breaking them into smaller fragments which are mixed with the gastric juice. The various enzymes and hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice break food down even more, forming a semi-liquid substance called chyme. This ultimately passes into the intestines through the pyloric orifice by a process called gastric peristalsis. Being a muscular organ, the stomach can distend quite a lot, accumulating anywhere between 2 and 3 liters of food. The stomach is also involved in a small degree of absorption. It can absorb water, caffeine, and a small proportion of ingested alcohol. The stomach also plays a role in controlling secretion and motility within the digestive tract by releasing several hormones such as gastrin, cholecystokinin, secretin, and gastric inhibitory peptide.

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NOTE: Above More accurate treatment cost estimates can be provided if medical reports are emailed to us or after the patient is examined by doctors after arrival at hospital in India and medical tests are done after admission.

Frequently asked questions about Stomach

What causes gastric ulcer?

Stomach ulcers are usually caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These can break down the stomach's defence against the acid it produces to digest food, allowing the stomach lining to become damaged and an ulcer to form that is an erosion in the lining of the stomach, often causing pain and/or bleeding.

What is the treatment for stomach ulcer?

The treatment for stomach ulcers is usually medication to reduce acid production or block it, antacids, or antibiotics to kill the H.Pylori bacteria. In case a patient has a serious complication from an ulcer, such as acute bleeding or a perforation, surgery may be required.

What is gastroenteritis?

Gastroenteritis commonly known as stomach flu has symptoms like nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and headaches. It is caused by an infection — either viral or bacterial — in the gut. Bacterial infections can be caused by E. coli or salmonella, while viral infections can include rotavirus or norovirus. Parasites, too, can cause gastroenteritis.

When do I need to see a doctor for GERD?

Stomach contents, including acid, can travel backward up the esophagus. When symptoms of reflux become bothersome or occur frequently it can cause serious problems of the esophagus. GERD can cause serious problems of the esophagus. GERD can be a problem if it's not treated because, over time, the reflux of stomach acid damages the tissue lining the esophagus, causing inflammation and pain. In adults, long-lasting, untreated GERD can lead to permanent damage of the esophagus and sometimes even cancer.

What is Bariatric surgery and how does it work?

Gastric bypass and other weight-loss surgeries — known collectively as bariatric surgery — involve making changes to your digestive system to help you lose weight. Some types of bariatric surgeries make your stomach smaller, allowing you to eat and drink less at one time and making you feel full sooner. Bariatric surgery is done when diet and exercise have not worked or when you have serious health problems because of your weight.

What is the success rate for bariatric surgery?

Weight loss averages 65% for most patients with over 85% of patients losing and maintaining 50% initial excess weight loss.

Is Bariatric Surgery Safe?

Bariatric Surgery is among the Safest Surgical Procedures.

While any surgical procedure has risks, bariatric surgery has been found to be one of the safest surgeries to undergo. It is considered as safe or safer when compared to other elective surgeries.

How much does a bariatric surgery cost in india?


CityLowest CostAverage Cost
New DelhiRs. 2,10,000Rs. 2,90,000
MumbaiRs. 2,25,000Rs. 3,00,000
ChennaiRs. 2,35,000Rs. 3,20,000
BangaloreRs. 2,40,000Rs. 3,35,000
How is the bariatric surgery done? And what are its advantages?

Some weight-loss surgeries are done with traditional large, or open, incisions in the abdomen. Recently most bariatric surgeries are performed laparoscopically. A laparoscope is a small, tubular instrument with a camera attached. The laparoscope is inserted through small incisions in the abdomen. Laparoscopic surgery has the advantage of avoiding large open wounds or incisions and thus of decreasing blood loss, pain and discomfort. Patients have fewer unwanted effects from analgesia because less analgesia is required. The fine instruments are less apt to cause tissue trauma and blood loss.

Which are best doctor for bariatric surgery in india?
  • DR. MUFFAZAL LAKDAWALA
  • DR. RANDEEP WADHAWAN
  • DR. PARITOSH GUPTA
  • DR. RAMAN GOEL
  • DR. AJAY KUMAR KRIPLANI
  • DR. SUKHVINDER SINGH SAGGU
  • DR. AMAR VENNAPUSA
  • DR. MAHENDRA NAWARIA
  • DR. ATUL PETERS
  • DR. SHASHANK SHAH
  • DR. JAYASHREE TODKAR
  • DR. RAMEN GOEL
  • DR. ADARSH CHAUDHARY
  • DR. PRADEEP CHOWBEY
  • DR. VIKAS SINGHAL
  • DR. MIR ASIF REHMAN
  • DR. NEHA SHAH
  • DR. NEEL SHETTY
  • DR. SANJAY BORUDE
  • DR. APARNA GOVIL BHASKER
  • DR. AHSAN BADAR
  • DR. ARUN PRASAD
  • DR. MAHENDRA NARWARIA
Which is the best hospital for bariatric surgery in india?

WOCKHARDT HOSPITAL MUMBAI.

INDRAPRASTHA APOLLO HOSPITAL, NEW DELHI.

ASIAN BARIATRICS - OBESITY CENTRE.

MEDANTA MULTI SUPER SPECIALITY HOSPITAL GURGAON.

SAIFEE HOSPITAL MUMBAI.

GLENEAGLES GLOBAL HOSPITALS MUMBAI.

GLENEAGLES GLOBAL HOSPITALS CHENNAI.

ASIAN BARIATRICS AHMEDABAD

Is stomach cancer curable?

Many cases of stomach cancer cannot be completely cured, but it's still possible to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life using chemotherapy and in some cases radiotherapy and surgery. If operable, surgery can cure stomach cancer as long as all of the cancerous tissue can be removed. Surgery to remove some or all of the stomach is known as a gastrectomy. It will still be possible to eat normally after a gastrectomy with a few changes. Chemotherapy can also be used before surgery to help shrink the tumour and sometimes after surgery to help prevent the cancer returning.

What are the causes for stomach cancer?

The exact cause of stomach cancer is still unclear, although one is more likely to develop it if:

  •  male
  • 55 years of age or older
  • smoke
  • have a diet low in fibre and high in processed food or red meat
  • have a diet that contains a lot of salted and pickled foods
  • have a stomach infection caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria 

What are the symptoms of stomach Cancer?

The initial symptoms of stomach cancer are vague and easy to mistake for other less serious conditions. They include:

  • persistent indigestion and heartburn
  • trapped wind and frequent burping
  • feeling very full or bloated after meals
  • persistent stomach pain

Symptoms of advanced stomach cancer can include:

  • blood in your stools, or black stools
  • loss of appetite
  • weight loss

What are the main function of stomach?

The core function of the human stomach is as an aid to digestion. The four key components of gastric digestive function are its function as a reservoir, acid secretion, enzyme secretion and its role in gastrointestinal motility.

What are the common digestive problems?

The common digestive problems are: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Heartburn happens, but if it occurs regularly it needs to be checked

  • Chronic Diarrhea. 
  • Chronic Constipation.
  • Gastroenteritis. 
  • Ulcers. 
  • Hemorrhoids.
What tests are done for stomach problem?

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (also called EGD or upper endoscopy). An EGD (upper endoscopy) is a procedure that allows the healthcare provider to examine the inside of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum with an endoscope. This is guided into the mouth and throat, then into the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. 

What is the function of HCL in stomach?

The hydrochloric acid (HCL) in the gastric juice breaks down the food and the digestive enzymes split up the proteins. The acidic gastric juice also kills bacteria. The mucus covers the stomach wall with a protective coating. It also activates the gastric enzymes like pepsin and trypsin.

What are indicating symptoms of stomach cancer?

Early-stage stomach cancer rarely causes symptoms. This is one of the reasons stomach cancer is so hard to detect early. The signs and symptoms of stomach cancer can include:

  • Poor appetite
  • Weight loss (without trying)
  • Abdominal (belly) pain
  • Vague discomfort in the abdomen, usually above the navel
  • A sense of fullness in the upper abdomen after eating a small meal
  • Heartburn or indigestion
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting, with or without blood
  • Swelling or fluid build-up in the abdomen
  • Blood in the stool
  • Low red blood cell count (anemia)

Recent Articles

Stomach Conditions

  • Common diseases of the stomach include peptic (gastric) ulcers and gastric tumors/cancers (eg, adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, GI stromal tumor [GIST]).
  • Gastroesophageal reflux: Stomach contents, including acid, can travel backward up the esophagus. There may be no symptoms, or reflux may cause heartburn or coughing.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): When symptoms of reflux become bothersome or occur frequently, they are called GERD. Infrequently, GERD can cause serious problems of the esophagus.
  • Hiatus hernia: It occurs when part of the stomach bulges through an opening in the diaphragm
  • Dyspepsia: Another name for stomach upset or indigestion. Dyspepsia may be caused by almost any benign or serious condition that affects the stomach.
  • Gastric ulcer (stomach ulcer): An erosion in the lining of the stomach, often causing pain and/or bleeding. Gastric ulcers are most often caused by NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs commonly referred to as painkillers) or H. pylori infection.
  • Peptic ulcer disease: Doctors consider ulcers in either the stomach or the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) peptic ulcer disease.
  • Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach, often causing nausea and/or pain. Gastritis can be caused by alcohol, certain medications, H. pylori infection, or other factors.
  • Stomach cancer: Gastric cancer is an uncommon form of cancer. Adenocarcinoma and lymphoma make up most of the cases of stomach cancer
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES): One or more tumors that secrete hormones that lead to increased acid production. Severe GERD and peptic ulcer disease result from this rare disorder.
  • Gastric varices: In people with severe liver disease, veins in the stomach may swell and bulge under increased pressure. Called varices, these veins are at high risk for bleeding, although less so than esophageal varices are.
  • Stomach bleeding: Gastritis, ulcers, or gastric cancers may bleed. Seeing blood or black material in vomit or stool is usually a medical emergency.
  • Gastroparesis (delayed gastric emptying): Nerve damage from diabetes or other conditions may impair the stomach’s muscle contractions. Nausea and vomiting are the usual symptoms.

After a thorough examination correlating with the diagnostic imaging test the doctor may prescribe medications or surgery.

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