About Blood Related Cancers

Around 8% of our body weight constitutes blood. Blood circulates through the vascular system supplying oxygen, antibodies, and nutrients to all the organs of the body. It constitutes blood cells and plasma.

An excessive and abnormal reproduction of white blood cells leads to cancer in the blood. In terms of blood cancer cases, India ranks third. Blood cancer accounts for approximately 8% of all cancer cases in India. Cancer is caused due to the dysfunction in the growth of the cells. Treatment is carried out depending on the types of symptoms of blood cancer, as it may vary from person to person. Early diagnosis and treatment for blood cancer are crucial. Blood cancer treatment has undergone considerable improvements, resulting in increased rates of survival and remission. 

There are a number of best blood cancer hospitals in India. To name a few of the blood-related cancer treatments and hospitals in India are Fortis Hospitals, Apollo Hospitals, BLK Hospitals, Narayana Multispeciality hospital, etc. 

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Blood-Related Cancers

Symptoms of blood cancer are often inconclusive. The effects of it are related to many other features of the condition. The cancerous white blood cells do not function as they should and may produce inflammation and invade body organs. Some of the common symptoms and signs of blood cancer in adults are as below: 

  • Unexplained bruising
  • Chills, fatigue, and fever 
  • Less stamina
  • Night sweats
  • Pain in the joints and bones
  • Unexplained Weight loss
  • Physical exertion
  • Swelling in the lymph nodes
  • Recurring infections

One can have some or all of these symptoms for any type of blood cancer. 

Causes of Blood-Related Cancers

The precise reason or what causes leukemia is not yet determined. Certain influential factors, according to research, may increase a person's risk of developing Blood Cancer. The risk factors for blood cancer are identified based on the higher probabilities of developing this cancer. Blood cancers come in a variety of forms. They each have their own set of risk factors. A few of the common factors that cause blood cancer are as below: 

Radiation Exposure – Radiation of a specific wavelength may damage the DNA and may cause cancer. The higher the radiation dose, the greater the likelihood of developing blood cancer.

Genetics: - Some genetic mutations may increase the risk of blood cancer in a person. Some genetic disorders like Bloom Syndrome, Down syndrome, Fanconi Anemia, etc. 

Smoking:  One of the most important factors in the development of blood cancer. Smoking not only causes mouth or lung cancer, but it contributes to blood cancer too. Tobacco damages the DNA of the blood cells that leads to malfunctioning and abnormal growth of cells that cause blood cancer. 

Chemical exposure: Benzene is the most dangerous and common chemical that causes blood cancer. Formaldehyde, chemicals, heavy factory smoke, certain drugs used during chemotherapy too may lead to blood cancer. 

Types of Blood-Related Cancers


All the cancers that arise in the bone marrow are known as Leukemia. It begins in blood cells that have undergone a malignant transformation. They multiply uncontrollably and are not able to function well. ALL - Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, AML - Acute myeloid leukemia, APL - Acute promyelocytic leukemia, CLL - Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, CML - Chronic myeloid leukemia, and childhood leukemia are all types of Leukemia.

During the early stages of leukemia, there are no visible signs. The symptoms of this type of blood cancer are difficult to spot as most signs are similar to other illnesses. Some of the symptoms of Leukemia are as follows: 

  • Prone to infections such as sore throat, mouth sores, skin rash
  • Pallor, fatigue, and other symptoms related to Anemia
  • Bleed or bruise easily, blood in the urine or stool, bleeding from nose or gums
  • Swelling in the lymph nodes such as armpits, neck
  • Weight loss
  • Retinal hemorrhage, stroke, prolonged erection.

Treatment for leukemia is determined by the patient's overall health and age, the type of leukemia, the patient's response to initial treatment, and whether the disease has spread to other organs.  Treatment for Leukemia includes radiation therapy, Chemotherapy, Immunotherapy, Bone marrow transplant, etc. the treatment cost of Leukemia in India depends on the type and growth of leukemia in the body. On average, the cost of it varies from 20 to 25 lakhs. The average length of stay for leukemia treatment is two to three months. Depending on the type of treatment, it varies.


Lymphoma is a medical condition that affects the immune system's lymphocytes. Lymphocytes can be found in the spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and other organs. When lymphoma cancer occurs lymphocytes change and multiply uncontrollably. There are two types of lymphoma cancer are Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma cancer. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma cancer is also known as skin lymphoma. 

Signs and symptoms of Lymphoma cancer are fever, fatigue, itching, swelling of the glands, night sweats, weight loss, itching, etc. Most symptoms of cancer are similar to that of illnesses. The symptoms of this type of cancer can be identified, through the diagnosis of lymphoma.  Diagnoses are carried out using biopsy, blood-testing, chest X-ray, CT scans, and MRI scans. 

The treatment for lymphoma depends on the type and the stage of this type of cancer. Immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are all used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is treated with targeted therapy, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and other methods. Apart from these treatments, stem cell transplant is also used for its treatment. The cost of treatment of lymphoma in India depends on the type of cancer and its stage. The average price of one chemotherapy session is around INR 75000, a bone marrow transplant is around INR 15 lakhs, and radiation therapy is around INR 5 lakhs. 


Myeloma cancer is known as plasma cells cancer. It is also known as multiple myeloma. Plasma cells create antibodies that protect one from infection. In the case of myeloma cancer, the cells multiply rapidly in the bone marrow and spread all over the body. Though, the causes of myeloma cancer are not known. Age plays a significant risk factor for myeloma. Men are more like to develop myeloma than women. 

When blood tests or urine tests results show higher levels of protein, it may be one of the symptoms of myeloma. In advanced stages, symptoms include pain in the bones, especially in the ribs or back, bleeding or bruising easily, weakness in the legs or arms, frequent infections, etc.

The multiple myeloma treatment depends on the patient’s symptoms, overall health, and fitness levels, and results of scans, bone marrow tests, and blood tests. The treatment includes chemotherapy, steroids, targeted drugs, and in some cases stem cell transplant is required. The approximate Myeloma treatment cost in India is around INR ten lakhs; moreover, it depends on the stages of cancer. 

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)

Myelodysplastic syndrome, often known as MDS cancer, is a kind of blood cancer that affects the bone marrow. It is more common in those over the age of 70, but it can happen to anyone at any age. Some patients may or may not display myelodysplastic syndrome symptoms.  However, patients with MDS cancer have low levels of blood cells. The majority of MDS cases are caused by a decrease in the number of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets in the blood. Symptoms include dizziness, fatigue, shortness of breath, physical exertion, pale skin, weakness, discomfort in the chest, easily getting bruised, etc.

Each patient needs to be evaluated by a hematologist-oncologist and find out the disease subtype and treatment options. To cure MDS, doctors would use a variety of myelodysplastic syndrome treatments and treatment combinations. Treatment is determined by the subtype of MDS, overall health, other comorbidities, and so on. Chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunosuppressants, stem cell transplant, and other treatments are available. 

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN)

MPN cancers or myeloproliferative neoplasms are cancers that start in the bone marrow. The bone marrow generates a large number of cells. Due to this quantum of cells, the thickness of the blood gets altered. Sometimes these cells may not function properly. A bone marrow biopsy and numerous blood tests are used to diagnose several kinds of this cancer. CML (chronic myelogenous leukemia), Polycythemia Vera, thrombocythemia, chronic neutrophilic leukemia, chronic eosinophilic leukemia, and primary myelofibrosis are some of the most common MPN malignancies. 

Myeloproliferative disorder symptoms may or may not present in all patients. It entirely depends on the type of Myeloproliferative neoplasms. Some common ones are shortness of breath, blood clots, fever and infections, blood clotting, tiredness, fatigue, pale skin, pain in the bones, night sweats, itching, etc. 

Doctors generally diagnose MPN cancer with the help of blood tests, physical examination, cytogenetic testing, bone marrow examination, etc. The treatment for MPN cancer includes Targeted Therapy, Radiation therapy, Phlebotomy, Chemotherapy, and in some cases, surgical removal of the spleen. 


Amyloidosis is a condition that is arisen due to the build-up of amyloid – an abnormal protein. The deposits of this amyloid build-up may eventually destruct and fail the organs. It is a rare disorder. Organs affected by Amyloidosis are kidneys, heart, liver, nerves, skin, intestines, and joints. 

Amyloidosis symptoms include getting bruised easily, numbness, tingling feeling in the feet and hands, tiredness, bleeding more than regular after an injury, shortness of breath, unexplained weight loss, swelling in the feet, ankles, legs, belly, etc. Amyloid protein accumulation can impair the kidneys, liver, digestive tract, spleen, nerves, brain, and heart as the condition advances. The deposits in the heart, the condition is known as Cardiac Amyloidosis. 

The diagnosis of Amyloidosis will require a few tests like blood tests, urine tests, echocardiogram, liver ultrasounds, nuclear heart tests, and in some cases genetic tests. 

The goal of treatment for Amyloidosis is to slow the advancement of the disease, reduce the severity of the symptoms, and extend life. The exact treatment of Amyloidosis depends on the type of it. Treatment includes Bone marrow transplant, chemotherapy, and medications. 

Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia  (WM)

Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia is a rare blood cancer type. In this type of cancer, lymphocytes proliferate excessively in the lymph nodes or bone marrow. The cells produce massive amounts of an antibody – immunoglobulin is known as a macroglobulin. As each antibody created by the abnormal cells are similar, they are known as monoclonal protein. The build-up of this protein may lead to the symptoms of Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia. 

WM is more likely to occur in people over 65 who have a family history of the disease. There are no symptoms in some cases of WM. symptoms of Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia are;  Anemia, unexplained weight loss, neuropathy, fatigue, night sweats, and fever. 

The diagnosis of Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia is carried out using bone marrow biopsy, imaging tests, and blood and urine tests. The treatment for Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia includes Plasmapheresis, Chemotherapy, Biological therapy, targeted therapy, Bone marrow transplant, etc. The treatment of Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia in India is carried out by certified hemato oncologists to cure complex blood disorders. 

Aplastic anemia

Aplastic anemia occurs when the bone marrow does not produce enough platelets, white blood cells, or red blood cells. Hemoglobin levels fall when the number of red blood cells decreases. Infections are more likely when white blood cell count is low. A low platelet count makes the blood thin and prevents it from clotting. 

Aplastic anemia occurs at any age. It is more common among young adults, teens, and older adults. A person is at an increased risk for aplastic anemia, if they are exposed to toxins, have a disease such as HIV or hepatitis, etc. 

The causes of Aplastic anemia are several. Causes are generally linked to previous disorders or illnesses. It includes radiation exposure, inherited condition, history of autoimmune disease, taking certain antibiotics, and a history of some infectious diseases. 

The symptoms of Aplastic anemia vary from person to person. Some common symptoms are dizziness, headache, shortness of breath, bruising, pale skin, blood in stools, bleeding in the gums, enlarged spleen or liver, fatigue, oral thrush, and nausea.

The diagnosis of Aplastic Anemia is similar to those of other types of Blood-related Cancers. The treatment for Aplastic Anemia depends on the patient’s age, medical history, and overall health. It also depends on the patient's ability to cope with therapies, operations, and medications The underlying cause of this sickness determines the cure. Aplastic Anemia is treated with antibiotics, blood transfusions, hormone therapy, and other methods. The cost of treating aplastic anemia in India ranges from INR 10 to 12 lacs. 

Childhood Blood Cancers

 The type of blood cancer that affects the WBC in the bone marrow and blood is known as Leukemia.  Acute leukemia develops rapidly, whereas chronic leukemia develops gradually. Childhood blood cancers are always acute. Different blood cells are affected by various forms of leukemia. The two most common types of childhood leukemia are ALL – Acute lymphocytic leukemia, which accounts for 80 percent of leukemia in children, and AML – Acute myeloid leukemia, which accounts for 20 percent of leukemia. 

The symptoms of Childhood blood cancer include anemia, easily getting bruised, severe and long-lasting infections.  A bone marrow biopsy, lumbar puncture test, and other tests are used to diagnose these symptoms. Acute leukemia treatment involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, bone marrow transplant, blood transfusion, and medications. Childhood blood cancers treatment in India focuses on the complete eradication of cancer.

Blood-related Cancer Treatments in India

Blood cancer treatment in India depends on the patient's age, the type of blood cancer, how quickly the cancer is growing, and whether cancer has spread to other regions of the body. Over the years, treatment for blood cancer has improved a lot. When you consider world-class technologies, high-quality medical care, and other factors, the cost of blood cancer treatment in India is relatively reasonable. The treatment cost depends on the oncologist fees, admission fees, type of blood cancer treatment, age and medical condition of the patient, lab tests, etc. The cost varies from INR ten to thirty lakhs. 

Acute Myeloid Leukemia treatment

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a type of blood cancer that starts in the bone marrow. It quickly moves from the bone marrow into the bloodstream and, at times, other parts of the body. It may spread to the brain, liver, lymph nodes, cerebral spinal fluid, spleen, skin, etc. 

Acute Myeloid Leukemia is also referred to as Acute Myelogenous Leukemia, Acute Myelocytic Leukemia, Acute Nonlymphocytic leukemia, Acute Granulocytic Leukemia, and Acute promyelocytic leukemia. 

Acute Myeloid Leukemia symptoms include fatigue, fever, feeling cold, frequent infections, pale skin, nosebleeds, easy bruising, bleeding gums, anemia, shortness of breath, and swelling of the lymph nodes. 

Acute Myeloid Leukemia treatment includes targeted therapy, Chemotherapy, Monoclonal Antibody therapy, Stem cell transplant, etc. 

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia treatment

There are many different types of Leukemia. Compared to Acute Leukemias, Chronic Leukemia is slower and life-threatening. It is also known as Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic Granulocytic Leukemia, and Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia. In the short version, it is also known as CML. In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, immature white cells or blast cells multiply uncontrollably, thus pushing out other vital blood cells. 

Chronic myeloid leukemia symptoms are similar to symptoms of other diseases. Thus they generally get dismissed or ignored. The symptoms include weakness, night sweats, unexplained weight loss, bone pain, feeling bloated, shortness of breath, etc. 

The diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia is challenging as the symptoms are similar to other types of cancers as well. The doctors will have to carry our laboratory tests and physical examination to confirm the diagnosis. 

The treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia differs based on the patient's overall health and how far cancer has gone throughout the body. Some common treatments include Bone marrow transplant, Targeted therapy, Chemotherapy, Drug Therapy, etc. Most treatments for CML are based on the stages of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. The Chronic Phase, Accelerated Phase, and Blast Crisis Phase are the three stages of this Leukemia. Studies have shown that the survival and quality of life of patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in India have improved considerably over the years especially when they are treated during the early chronic phase. 

Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma treatment

NHL or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a type of cancer that starts in the lymph system. NHL comes in many types; the types of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma are categorized into aggressive – rapidly growing and indolent – slow-moving. Some kinds of indolent NHL have the potential to develop into more aggressive lymphomas.

The symptoms of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma are fever, unexplained pain in the abdomen, chest, and bones, skin rash, night sweats, feeling of fullness, more tired than usual, swelling in the lymph nodes of the groin, stomach, neck, underarms, and unexplained weight loss. 

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a curable and treatable disease. The treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma is focused to destroy cancer cells and prevent them from further division. Treatments include Radiation Therapy, Biologic Therapy, Traditional Systemic Chemotherapy, and Targeted Systemic Anti-cancer medications. 

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Detection of blood cancer at an early stage is a significant aspect to control cancer. Detection of cancer at an early stage enables effective treatment. The goal of blood cancer treatment in India is to cure or treat the patient and prolong their life. Over years, there have been many advances in blood cancer treatments in India. 

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NOTE: Above More accurate treatment cost estimates can be provided if medical reports are emailed to us or after the patient is examined by doctors after arrival at hospital in India and medical tests are done after admission.

Frequently asked questions about Blood Related Cancers

What are the types of blood cancers?
There are three main types of blood cancers as Myeloma, Lymphoma, and Leukemia. 
What happens if you have blood cancer?
If a person has blood cancer, there is an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of blood cells. These cells do not function properly and may even hinder the functioning of healthy blood cells. It restrains the blood from carrying out regular activities like repairing the body or fighting infections. 
Is blood cancer curable?
Yes, blood cancer can be cured with the right medication and treatment at an early stage. The person diagnosed with blood cancer has the survival chance of living five years or more. The prognosis for blood cancers is entirely dependent on the type of cancer, the stage of the disease, and the patient's age. Blood cancers like chronic lymphocytic leukemia and myeloma can be controlled so that the patient can live a productive and normal life for many years. 
What causes blood cancers?
Blood cancers are caused by mutations or changes in the DNA in the blood cells. The mutations cause the blood cells to behave abnormally, and cannot be controlled. Though the exact cause of blood cancer is still not known, certain factors may increase the risk of developing blood cancers such as gender, age, family history, chemical or radiation exposure, and existing health conditions. 
Which blood cancer is not curable?

CLL (chronic lymphocytic leukemia) is a blood malignancy that is rarely curable. Patients with CLL live with this cancer for many years without treatment. But, over time, treatment is necessary. Treatment may be paused in between but, it does not end. Living with cancer that does not go away can be challenging and stressful. 

Are blood cancers hereditary?

Blood cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the bone marrow. It is where the blood cells are made. Blood cancer is a genetic disease, but not all blood cancers are hereditary. Along with gene mutations, other factors too are responsible for developing blood cancer. 

How many stages are there in blood cancer?

Staging of Blood Cancer is a way to describe the size of cancer and the extent of its growth. Staging is also vital in the treatment of blood cancer. Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia, and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia are the four stages of blood cancer.

What is the treatment for Blood cancer?
The treatment for Blood cancer depends on various factors. The oncologist would determine the treatment for Blood cancer in India based on the patient’s overall health, age, the type of Blood cancer the patient has, and the extent to which it has spread to other parts of the body. 
What is the prognosis for blood cancer?

Once the person has been diagnosed with blood cancer, one may want to know about the prognosis of blood cancer. The prognosis of blood cancer generally depends on the cases of many patients over a period to have a generic idea. Though, the prognosis for the two patients may be different. 

The doctor will be the best to advise the patients about their prognosis. It depends on several factors like the diagnosis – the type of blood cancer, and the results of tests, the age and fitness of the patient, and the stage of blood cancer. 

What are the signs of blood cancer?
The symptoms of blood cancer differ depending on the type of cancer. Common symptoms and signs of blood cancer are chills, fever, fatigue, pain in the joints and bones, unexplained weight loss, weakness, anemia, and swelling of lymph nodes of the spleen and liver. 

Recent Articles

Many different types of blood cancers occur and if diagnosed at an early stage, can be easily cured with excellent rates of remission. These are mostly non-solid tumors. The main types of cancers that occur are:

  • Acute myeloid leukemia
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia
  • Acute lymphoid leukemia
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
  • Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
  • Hodgkin’s lymphoma

The rare neoplasms that occur are:

  • Primary myelofibrosis
  • Essential thrombocytosis (shows predominance in women)
  • B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL)
  • Splenic marginal zone lymphoma
  • Hairy cell leukemia
  • Nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma
  • Mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma
  • Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma
  • Primary effusion lymphoma
  • Lymphomatoidgranulomatosis
  • T-Cell ProlymphocyticLeukemia 
  • T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocytic Leukemia 
  • Aggressive NK Cell Leukemia
  • Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type 
  • Enteropathy-Type T-Cell Lymphoma 
  • Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma 
  • Subcutaneous Panniculitis-Like T-Cell Lymphoma 
  • Blastic NK Cell Lymphoma 
  • Primary Cutaneous CD30+ T-Cell Lymphoma 
  • Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma
  • Chronic neutrophilic leukemia
  • Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia
  • Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
  • Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia
  • MDS/MPN, unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-U)
  • MDS/MPNwith ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis (MDS/MPN-RS-T)
  • Myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable (MPN-U)
  • Myeloid neoplasms with germ line predisposition
  • Transient myeloproliferative disorder
  • Primary eosinophilia
  • Mastocytosis
  • Dendritic and histiocytic neoplasms
Read more..
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