The ureters are two muscular tubes which carry urine from each kidney into the urinary bladder for storage before it is emptied. It is done through regular contractions called peristalsis.
Ureter disorders include:

Ureteral stones: kidney stones that dislodge and get stuck in the ureters can block urine flow. The presence of high levels of uric acid oxalates and minerals in the urine leads to stone formation.

  • Ureteral obstruction: involves a blockage of one or both the ureters. If left untreated, it can lead to complications of sepsis, kidney failure and even death
  • Developmental abnormalities of the ureter: Ectopic ureter is a birth defect in which the ureter may not connect with the bladder. So the urine is drained outside the bladder; in case of females it can be in the vagina or the urethra and in case of the boys it drains into the urethra or into the sex organs.
  • Duplication of the ureter: congenital(birth) defect in which a baby is born with 2 ureters draining urine out from a single kidney into the bladder. One ureter drains from the upper part of the kidney and the second drains from the lower part of the same kidney.
  • Megaureter: Due to an obstruction in the ureter the tube expands
  • Uterocoele: part of the ureter close to the bladder has expanded.
  • Vesicoureteral reflex: backflow of urine into the ureters from the bladder this backflow may go upto the kidney as well.
  • Ureteropelvic junction obstruction: The point, at which the ureter is attached to the kidney, is blocked, preventing urine from exiting the kidney.
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When the passage of urine is blocked it can lead to pyelonephritis (inflammation of the kidney due to infection), loss of renal function, or renal calculi (kidney stones). The signs and symptoms depend on where the ureteral obstruction occurs, if it is partial or complete, its progress, and whether any one or both kidneys are affected.

Commons symptoms might include

  • Abdominal pain, lowback pain or sides below the ribs (flank pain).
  • Fever, nausea, or vomiting
  • Changes in the amount of urine produced
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Blood in the urine
  • urinary tract infections
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • urinary incontinence

Treatment for Ureteral conditions: NSAIDs for pain relief, in case of an infection antibiotics are often prescribed. For ureteral obstruction treatment consists of the removal of the obstruction or diversion to aid drainage. A ureteral stent (thin tube placed inside the ureter) or catheter is used to drain the urine from ureters. If conservative means fail surgery may be considered. The types of surgery are: open surgery, minimally invasive endoscopic surgery, laparoscopic and robot assisted.

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